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Enlightenment In Spain
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain
Spain
in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity."[1] The period of reform and 'enlightened despotism' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, and improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca
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Charles III Of Spain
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain
King of Spain
and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples
Naples
as Charles VII and Sicily
Sicily
as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese
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Visigothic Kingdom
The Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
or Kingdom of the Visigoths
Visigoths
(Latin: Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic successor states to the Western Roman Empire, it was originally created by the settlement of the Visigoths
Visigoths
under King Wallia
Wallia
in the province of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
in southwest France
France
by the Roman government and then extended by conquest over all of the Iberian Peninsula
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Plus Ultra (motto)
Plus ultra[note 1] ("Further beyond") is a Latin motto and the national motto of Spain. It is taken from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Spain, and is a reversal of the original phrase Non plus ultra ("Nothing further beyond").[note 2] This was said to have been inscribed as a warning on the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar, which marked the edge of the known world
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Romanization Of Hispania
The Romanization of Hispania
Hispania
is the process by which Roman or Latin culture was introduced into the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
during the period of Roman rule.Glass jar, at the Museum of Valladolid. The Romans were pioneers in the technique of glass blowing.Throughout the centuries of Roman rule over the provinces of Hispania, Roman customs, religion, laws and the general Roman lifestyle, gained much favour in the indigenous population, which was compounded by a substantial minority of Roman immigrants, which eventually formed a distinct Hispano-Roman culture
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Roman Conquest Of Hispania
The Roman conquest of Hispania
Roman conquest of Hispania
was a process by which the Roman Republic seized the Carthaginian territories in the south and east in 206 BC (during the Second Punic War) and then gradually extended control over most of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
without annexations. It was completed after the fall of the Republic (27 BC), by Augustus, the first Roman emperor, who annexed the whole of Hispania to the Roman Empire in 19 BC. Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. The peninsula had various ethnic groups and a large number of tribes. This process started with the Roman acquisition of the former Carthaginian territories in southern Hispania and along the east coast as a result of defeating the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
(206 BC) during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), leading to them leaving the peninsula. This established Roman territorial presence in Hispania
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Carthaginian Iberia
The Carthaginian
Carthaginian
presence in Iberia lasted from 575 BC to 206 BC when the Carthaginians were defeated by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
at the Battle of Ilipa in the Second Punic War.Contents1 Background 2 Expansion into Iberia 3 Fall of the Empire 4 Art and artefacts of Phoenician influence in Iberia 5 See alsoBackground[edit]Phoenician trade routesThe Phoenicians were a people from the eastern Mediterranean who were mainly traders from the cities of Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos. They colonised much of the Mediterranean and in the year 814 BC, they founded the city of Carthage
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Pre-Roman Peoples Of The Iberian Peninsula
This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
(the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain
Spain
and Andorra). Some closely fit the concept of a people, ethnic group or tribe
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Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, a part of southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control
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Spanish Constitution Of 1812
The Spanish Constitution of 1812
Spanish Constitution of 1812
was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz
Cádiz
Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
("General Courts"),[1] in refuge in Cádiz
Cádiz
during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, and supported land reform and free enterprise. This constitution, one of the most liberal of its time, was effectively Spain's first (see Constitutions of Spain), given that the Bayonne Statute issued in 1808 under Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
never entered into effect
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Spanish Confiscation
The Spanish confiscation
Spanish confiscation
was the Spanish government's seizure and sale of property, including from the Catholic Church, from the late 18th century to the early 20th century. It was a long historical, economic and social process beginning with the so-called "Confiscation of Godoy" in 1798—although there was an earlier precedent during the reign of Charles III of Spain—and ending on 16 December 1924. Confiscation consisted of the forced expropriation of land and property from the "mortmains" (i.e., the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and religious orders, which had accumulated it from grants, wills and intestates) and from municipalities
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Cádiz Cortes
The Cádiz
Cádiz
Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain.[1] It represented the abolition of the old kingdoms.[2] The opening session was held on 24 September 1810, in the building now known as the Real Teatro de las Cortes. It met as one body and its members represented the entire Spanish empire.[3] The sessions of the national legislative body (traditionally known in Spain as the Cortes) met in the safe haven of Cádiz
Cádiz
during the French occupation of Spain during the Napoleonic Wars. The Cádiz
Cádiz
Cortes were seen then, and by historians today, as a major step towards liberalism and democracy in the history of Spain
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Seven Years' War
Anglo-Prusso-Portuguese coalition victoryTreaty of Saint Petersburg (1762) Treaty of Hamburg (1762) Treaty of Paris (1763) Treaty of Hubertusburg
Treaty of Hubertusburg
(1763)Territorial changes Status quo ante bellum in Europe. Transfer of colonial possessions between Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal.France cedes its possessions east of the Mississippi River, Canada (except Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), the island of Grenada, and the Northern Circars
Northern Circars
in India
India
to Great Britain. France cedes Louisiana
Louisiana
and its territory west of the Mississippi River to Spain. Spain
Spain
cedes Florida to Great Britain. Four "neutral" Caribbean
Caribbean
islands divided between Britain (St. Vincent, Tobago, Dominica) and France (St
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Spanish War Of Succession
The Grand Alliance Holy Roman Empire Austria  Prussia Spain
Spain
loyal to Charles Crown of Aragon Great Britain [a]  Dutch Republic  Portugal  SavoyBourbon France and Spain  France Philip V Bavaria
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Charles II Of Spain
Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
(Spanish: Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700) was the last Habsburg
Habsburg
ruler of the Spanish Empire. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado),[1] he is now best remembered for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and the war that followed his death. He died childless in 1700, all potential Habsburg
Habsburg
successors having predeceased him
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Timeline Of Spanish History
This is a timeline of Spanish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Spain
Spain
and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Spain. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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