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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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English (other)
ENGLISH may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of England
England
* English people , an ethnic group of people native to England * English national identity , an identity and common culture*
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English-speaking World
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language . More than half of these (231 million) live in the United States , followed by some 55 million in England , the first place where Modern English was spoken. English is the third largest language by number of native speakers , after Mandarin and Spanish . Estimates that include second language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 1 billion. David Crystal calculates that non-native speakers as of 2003 outnumbered native speakers by a ratio of 3 to 1. When combining native and non-native speakers, English is the second most widely spoken language worldwide
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Foreign Language
A FOREIGN LANGUAGE is a language indigenous to another country. It is also a language not spoken in the native country of the person referred to, i.e., an English speaker living in Spain can say that Spanish is a foreign language to him or her. These two characterisations do not exhaust the possible definitions, however, and the label is occasionally applied in ways that are variously misleading or factually inaccurate. Some children learn more than one language from birth or from a very young age: they are bilingual or multilingual . These children can be said to have two, three or more mother tongues: neither language is foreign to that child, even if one language is a foreign language for the vast majority of people in the child's birth country. For example, a child learning English from his English father and Irish at school in Ireland can speak both English and Irish, but neither is a foreign language to him
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Germanic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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West Germanic Languages
The WEST GERMANIC LANGUAGES constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages). The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English , German , and Dutch . The family also includes other High and Low German languages and dialects including Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
and Yiddish , in addition to other Franconian and Ingvaeonic languages such as the Frisian languages , Scots and Afrikaans (which are closely related to but separate from English and Dutch, respectively). Additionally, several creoles , patois , and pidgins are based on Dutch and English as they were languages of colonial empires
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Anglo-Frisian Languages
ANGLIC English Scots FRISIAN West Frisian North Frisian Saterland Frisian Hatched areas indicate where multilingualism is common. The ANGLO-FRISIAN LANGUAGES is the group of West Germanic languages that includes Anglic and Frisian
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Anglic Languages
ANGLIC English Scots FRISIAN West Frisian North Frisian Saterland Frisian Hatched areas indicate where multilingualism is common. The ANGLO-FRISIAN LANGUAGES is the group of West Germanic languages that includes Anglic and Frisian . The Anglo- Frisian languages are distinguished from other West Germanic languages by several sound changes : the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law , Anglo-Frisian brightening , and palatalization of /k/: * English _cheese_ and West Frisian _tsiis_, but Dutch _kaas_, Low German _Kees_, and German _Käse_ * English _church_ and West Frisian _tsjerke_, but Dutch _kerk_, Low German _Kerk_, _Kark_, and German _Kirche_The early Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon speech communities lived close enough together to form a linguistic crossroads which is why they share some of the traits otherwise only typical of Anglo-Frisian languages
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Old English
OLD ENGLISH (_Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc_) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language , spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
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Middle English
MIDDLE ENGLISH (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500. This stage of the development of the English language roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages . Middle English developed out of Late Old English , seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography . Writing customs during Middle English times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press , a standard based on the London dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established. This largely forms the basis for Modern English spelling, although pronunciation has changed considerably since that time
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Early Modern English
EARLY MODERN ENGLISH, EARLY NEW ENGLISH (sometimes abbreviated to EMODE, EMNE or EME) is the stage of the English language used from the beginning of the Tudor period until the English Interregnum and Restoration , or from the transition from Middle English in the late 15th century to the transition to Modern English during the mid- to late 17th century. Prior to and following the accession of James I to the English throne in 1603, the emerging English standard began to influence the spoken and written Middle Scots of Scotland
Scotland

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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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