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Energy Policy Of Brazil
Brazil is the largest energy consumer in South America. It is the most important oil and gas producer in the region and the world's largest ethanol fuel producer. The government agencies responsible for energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), the National Council for Energy Policy (CNPE), the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) and the National Agency of Electricity (ANEEL).[1][2][3] State-owned companies Petrobras and Eletrobras are the major players in Brazil's energy sector, as well as Latin America's. Due to its ethanol fuel production, Brazil has sometimes been described as a bio-energy superpower.[36] Ethanol fuel is produced from sugar cane. Brazil has the largest sugar cane crop in the world, and is the largest exporter of ethanol in the world. With the 1973 oil crisis, the Brazilian government initiated in 1975 the Pró-Álcool program
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Oil Refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.[1][2][3] Petrochemicals feed stock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the need of using refined products of crude oil such as naphtha.[4][5] The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant
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Tupi Oil Field
The Tupi oil field (formerly Lula oil field) is a large oil field located in the Santos Basin, 250 kilometres (160 mi) off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[2] The field was originally nicknamed in honor of the Tupi people and later named after the mollusc, however it was also ambiguously similar to the name of former Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. It is considered to be the Western Hemisphere's largest oil discovery of the last 30 years.[3] The Lula field was discovered in October 2006 by Petrobras. The former president of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva called the field second independence for Brazil.[4] The field was originally named Tupi but in 2010 it was renamed Lula
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Light Crude Oil
Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature.[1] It has a low viscosity, low specific gravity and high API gravity due to the presence of a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions.[2] It generally has a low wax content. Light crude oil receives a higher price than heavy crude oil on commodity markets because it produces a higher percentage of gasoline and diesel fuel when converted into products by an oil refinery. The clear cut definition of light and heavy crude varies because the classification is based more on practical grounds than theoretical. The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) defines light crude oil for domestic U.S. oil as having an API gravity between 37° API (840 kg/m3) and 42° API (816 kg/m3), while it defines light crude oil for non-U.S
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Campos Basin
The Campos Basin is one of 12 coastal sedimentary basins of Brazil. It spans both onshore and offshore parts of the South Atlantic with the onshore part located near Rio de Janeiro. The basin originated in Neocomian stage of the Cretaceous period 145–130 million years ago during the breakup of Gondwana. It has a total area of about 115,000 square kilometres (44,000 sq mi), with the onshore portion small at only 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi).[1] The basin is named after the Campos dos Goytacazes city. The Campos Basin is bound on the south by the Cabo Frio High, separating the basin from the Santos Basin and on the north by the Vitória High, forming the boundary with the Espírito Santo Basin
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Maranhão
Maranhão (Portuguese pronunciation: [maɾɐˈɲɐ̃w, maɾɐj̃ɐ̃w]) is a state in Brazil. Located in the country's Northeast Region, it has a population of about 7 million and an area of 332,000 km2 (128,000 sq mi). Going clockwise from the north, it borders on the Atlantic Ocean and the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent inside the common Northeastern Brazilian dialect. Maranhão is described in books such as The Land of the Palm Trees by Gonçalves Dias and Casa de Pensão by Aluísio Azevedo. The state has 3,4% of the Brazilian population and produces only 1,3% of the Brazilian GDP. The dunes of Lençóis are an important area of environmental preservation. Also of interest is the state capital of São Luís, designated a Unesco World Heritage Site
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Sinopec
China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (中国石油化工股份有限公司), or Sinopec (simplified Chinese: 中国石化; traditional Chinese: 中國石化; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shíhuà), is a Chinese oil and gas enterprise based in Beijing. It is listed in Hong Kong and also trades in Shanghai and New York. Sinopec Limited's parent, Sinopec Group, is the world's largest oil refining, gas and petrochemical conglomerate, headquartered in Chaoyang District, Beijing.[5] Sinopec's business includes oil and gas exploration, refining, and marketing; production and sales of petrochemicals, chemical fibers, chemical fertilizers, and other chemical products; storage and pipeline transportation of crude oil and natural gas; import, export and import/export agency business of crude oil, natural gas, refined oil products, petrochemicals, and other chemicals
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