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Energy Resources
World energy resources
World energy resources
are the estimated maximum capacity for energy production given all available resources on Earth. They can be divided by type into fossil fuel, nuclear fuel and renewable resources.Contents1 Fossil fuel1.1 Coal 1.2 Natural gas 1.3 Oil 1.4 Sustainability2 Nuclear fuel2.1 Nuclear energy 2.2 Nuclear fusion3 Renewable resources3.1 Solar energy 3.2 Wind power 3.3 Wave and tidal power 3.4 Geothermal 3.5 Biomass 3.6 Hydropower4 ReferencesFossil fuel[edit] Main article: Fossil fuel Remaining reserves of fossil fuel are estimated as:[3]Fuel Proven energy reserves in ZJ (end of 2009)Coal   19.8Gas   36.4Oil   8.9These are the proven energy reserves; real reserves may be up to a factor 4 larger. Significant uncertainty exists for these numbers. Estimating the remaining fossil fuels on the planet depends on a detailed understanding of Earth's crust
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Worldwide Energy Supply
Worldwide energy supply refers to the global production and preparation of fuel, generation of electricity, and energy transport. First contemporary energy supply is outlined, statistical data rather than policy. Energy supply is a vast industry, powering the world economy. More than 10% of the world expenditures is used for energy purposes.[1] Short lists of countries are given where most energy is produced[note 1], distinguishing fossil, nuclear and renewable energy. Of all produced energy 80% is fossil. Half of that is produced by China, the United States and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf States and Norway export most of their production, largely to the European Union and Japan where not sufficient energy is produced to satisfy their users
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Nuclear Proliferation
Nuclear proliferation
Nuclear proliferation
is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT. Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "countervalue" targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states. Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel
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Energy Policy Of The European Union
European Union
European Union
total primary energy consumption by fuel in 2015[1]   Coal (17%)   Natural Gas (22%)   Hydro (5%)   Nuclear (12%)   Oil (37%)   Others (Renew.) (7%)European UnionThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of European UnionExecutiveJuncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) Vice Presidents College Civil Service Secretary-General SelmayrLegislature President Tajani (EPP)Largest groupsEPP (Manfred Weber) S&D (Gianni Pittella)8th session (2014–19)751 MEPs


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Nuclear Energy Policy
Nuclear energy policy
Nuclear energy policy
is a national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle, such as uranium mining, ore concentration, conversion, enrichment for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, storing and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, and disposal of radioactive waste. Nuclear energy policies often include the regulation of energy use and standards relating to the nuclear fuel cycle. Other measures include efficiency standards, safety regulations, emission standards, fiscal policies, and legislation on energy trading, transport of nuclear waste and contaminated materials, and their storage
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International Atomic Energy Agency
The International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute,[1] the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
and Security Council. The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna. The IAEA has two "Regional Safeguards Offices" which are located in Toronto, Canada, and in Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA also has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, and in Geneva, Switzerland
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Breeder Reactor
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.[1] These devices achieve this because their neutron economy is high enough to breed more fissile fuel than they use from fertile material, such as uranium-238 or thorium-232. Breeders were at first found attractive because their fuel economy was better than light water reactors, but interest declined after the 1960s as more uranium reserves were found,[2] and new methods of uranium enrichment reduced fuel costs.Contents1 Fuel efficiency and types of nuclear waste 2 Conversion ratio, breakeven, breeding ratio, doubling time, and burnup 3 Types of breeder reactor 4 Reprocessing 5 Waste reduction 6 Breeder reactor
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Fissile
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction. By definition, fissile material can sustain a chain reaction with neutrons of any energy. The predominant neutron energy may be typified by either slow neutrons (i.e., a thermal system) or fast neutrons
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Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations,[1][2] set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.[3] It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations
United Nations
organizations, the World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53
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Nuclear Safety
Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards". The IAEA defines nuclear security as "The prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities".[1] This covers nuclear power plants and all other nuclear facilities, the transportation of nuclear materials, and the use and storage of nuclear materials for medical, power, industry, and military uses. The nuclear power industry has improved the safety and performance of reactors, and has proposed new and safer reactor designs. However, a perfect safety cannot be guaranteed
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Radioactive Waste
Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
is usually a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
is hazardous to all forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. Radioactivity naturally decays over time, so radioactive waste has to be isolated and confined in appropriate disposal facilities for a sufficient period until it no longer poses a threat. The time radioactive waste must be stored for depends on the type of waste and radioactive isotopes
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List Of Civilian Nuclear Accidents
This article lists notable civilian accidents involving fissile nuclear material or nuclear reactors. Military accidents are listed at List of military nuclear accidents. Civil radiation accidents not involving fissile material are listed at List of civilian radiation accidents
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Plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium
is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states. It reacts with carbon, halogens, nitrogen, silicon and hydrogen. When exposed to moist air, it forms oxides and hydrides that can expand the sample up to 70% in volume, which in turn flake off as a powder that is pyrophoric. It is radioactive and can accumulate in bones, which makes the handling of plutonium dangerous. Plutonium
Plutonium
was first produced and isolated on December 14, 1940 by a deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley
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World Energy Consumption
World total primary energy consumption by fuel in 2015[2]    Coal
Coal
(30%)    Natural Gas
Natural Gas
(24%)   Hydro (7%)   Nuclear (4%)    Oil
Oil
(33%)   Others (Renewables) (2%) World energy consumption
World energy consumption
is the total energy used by the entire human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavours across every single industrial and technological sector, across every country. It does not include energy from food, and the extent to which direct biomass burning has been accounted for is poorly documented
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Nuclear Program Of Iran
The nuclear program of Iran
Iran
has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.[1] In 1970, Iran ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT),[2] making its nuclear program subject to the IAEA's verification. Iran's nuclear program was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace
Atoms for Peace
program.[3] The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran's nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the last Shah of Iran.[4] Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran
Iran
was cut off. In 1981, Iranian officials concluded that the country's nuclear development should continue
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Syria
Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-SūrīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the HomelandCapital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300Official languages ArabicEthnic groupsSyrian Arabs Arameans Kurds Turkomans Assyrians Circassians ArmeniansReligion 87% Islam 10% Christianity 3% Druzism[1]Government Unitary domina
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