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Energy Resources
WORLD ENERGY RESOURCES are the estimated maximum capacity for energy production given all available resources on Earth
Earth
. They can be divided by type into fossil fuel , nuclear fuel and renewable resources
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Radioactive Waste
RADIOACTIVE WASTE is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
is usually a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology , such as research and medicine . Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
is hazardous to all forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. Radioactivity naturally decays over time, so radioactive waste has to be isolated and confined in appropriate disposal facilities for a sufficient period until it no longer poses a threat. The time radioactive waste must be stored for depends on the type of waste and radioactive isotopes
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Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change
The INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations
United Nations
, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts. It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations
United Nations
organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations
United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly through Resolution 43/53. Membership of the IPCC
IPCC
is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP
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List Of Civilian Nuclear Accidents
This article lists notable civilian accidents involving fissile nuclear material or nuclear reactors . Military accidents are listed at List of military nuclear accidents . Civil radiation accidents not involving fissile material are listed at List of civilian radiation accidents . For a general discussion of both civilian and military accidents, see Nuclear and radiation accidents
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Nuclear Proliferation
NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION is the spread of nuclear weapons , fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons , commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT. Proliferation has been opposed by many nations with and without nuclear weapons, the governments of which fear that more countries with nuclear weapons may increase the possibility of nuclear warfare (up to and including the so-called "countervalue " targeting of civilians with nuclear weapons), de-stabilize international or regional relations, or infringe upon the national sovereignty of states . Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons: India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, North Korea
North Korea
, and Israel
Israel

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Plutonium
PLUTONIUM is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol PU and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized . The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states . It reacts with carbon , halogens , nitrogen , silicon and hydrogen . When exposed to moist air, it forms oxides and hydrides that can expand the sample up to 70% in volume, which in turn flake off as a powder that is pyrophoric . It is radioactive and can accumulate in bones , which makes the handling of plutonium dangerous. Plutonium
Plutonium
was first produced and isolated on December 14, 1940 by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg , Joseph W. Kennedy , Edwin M. McMillan , and Arthur C. Wahl by deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley
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Fissile
In nuclear engineering , FISSILE MATERIAL is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction . By definition, fissile material can sustain a chain reaction with neutrons of any energy. The predominant neutron energy may be typified by either slow neutrons (i.e., a thermal system) or fast neutrons . Fissile
Fissile
material can be used to fuel thermal-neutron reactors , fast-neutron reactors and nuclear explosives
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Breeder Reactor
A BREEDER REACTOR is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes . These devices achieve this because their neutron economy is high enough to breed more fissile fuel than they use from fertile material , such as uranium-238 or thorium-232 . Breeders were at first found attractive because their fuel economy was better than light water reactors , but interest declined after the 1960s as more uranium reserves were found, and new methods of uranium enrichment reduced fuel costs
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World Energy Consumption
WORLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION is the total energy used by the entire human civilization . Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavours across every single industrial and technological sector, across every country. It does not include energy from food, and the extent to which direct biomass burning has been accounted for is poorly documented. Being the power source metric of civilization, World Energy
Energy
Consumption has deep implications for humanity's socio-economic-political sphere. Institutions such as the International Energy
Energy
Agency (IEA), the U.S. Energy
Energy
Information Administration (EIA), and the European Environment Agency record and publish energy data periodically
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Nuclear Power
2012 World electricity generation by fuels (IEA, 2014) Coal/Peat (40.4%) Natural Gas (22.5%) Hydro (16.2%) Nuclear fission (10.9%) Oil (5.0%) Others (Renew. ) (5.0%) NUCLEAR POWER is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant . The term includes nuclear fission , nuclear decay and nuclear fusion . Presently, the nuclear fission of elements in the actinide series of the periodic table produce the vast majority of nuclear energy in the direct service of humankind, with nuclear decay processes, primarily in the form of geothermal energy , and radioisotope thermoelectric generators , in niche uses making up the rest
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Nuclear Energy Policy
NUCLEAR ENERGY POLICY is a national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle , such as uranium mining , ore concentration, conversion, enrichment for nuclear fuel , generating electricity by nuclear power , storing and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel , and disposal of radioactive waste . Nuclear energy policies often include the regulation of energy use and standards relating to the nuclear fuel cycle . Other measures include efficiency standards, safety regulations, emission standards , fiscal policies , and legislation on energy trading, transport of nuclear waste and contaminated materials, and their storage. Governments might subsidize nuclear energy and arrange international treaties and trade agreements about the import and export of nuclear technology , electricity , nuclear waste , and uranium
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International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique (AIEA) (in French) The IAEA flag ABBREVIATION IAEA AIEA FORMATION 29 July 1957 TYPE International organization
International organization
LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Vienna
Vienna
, Austria
Austria
MEMBERSHIP 168 member states HEAD Yukiya Amano WEBSITE IAEA.orgThe INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy , and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons . The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957
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Nuclear Program Of Iran
The NUCLEAR PROGRAM OF IRAN has included several research sites, two uranium mines , a research reactor , and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants . In 1970, Iran ratified the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT), making its nuclear program subject to the IAEA
IAEA
's verification. DEVELOPMENTIran's nuclear program was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace
Atoms for Peace
program. The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran's nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the last Shah of Iran. Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran
Iran
was cut off. In 1981, Iranian officials concluded that the country's nuclear development should continue
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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the Homeland Capital and largest city
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Renewable Resource
A RENEWABLE RESOURCE is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere . A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource's sustainability. Definitions of renewable resources may also include agricultural production, as in sustainable agriculture and to an extent water resources . In 1962 Paul Alfred Weiss defined Renewable Resources as: "The total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibres, drugs, etc...". Another type of renewable resources is renewable energy resources. Common sources of renewable energy include solar, geothermal and wind power, which are all categorised as renewable resources
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