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Encomienda
Encomienda
Encomienda
(Spanish pronunciation: [eŋkoˈmjenda]) was a labor system in Spain
Spain
and its empire. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain
Spain
during the Roman period, but used also following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Spanish colonization of the Americas
and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch. The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual
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Ethnic Group
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Peasant
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.[1][2] In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.[3] The word "peasant" is—and long has been—often used pejoratively to refer to poor or landless farmers and agricultural workers, especially in the poorer countries of the world in which the agricultural labor force makes up a large percentage of the population
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Enriquillo
Enriquillo
Enriquillo
was a Taíno cacique who rebelled against the Spaniards from 1519 to 1533. His long rebellion is the best known for the early Caribbean period and he is considered a hero of indigenous resistance for those in the modern Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
and Haiti.[1] Dominican friar Bartolome de Las Casas, who documented and railed against Spanish abuse of the indigenous, wrote sympathetically of Enriquillo.[2] His father was killed while attending peace talks with the Spanish, along with eighty other regional chieftains under the direction of his aunt Anacaona
Anacaona
in Jaragua. During the talks, Spanish soldiers set the meeting house on fire and proceeded to kill anyone who fled the flames
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Indentured Labor
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time. The contract often lets the employer sell the labor of an indenturee to a third party. Indenturees usually enter into an indenture for a specific payment or other benefit, or to meet a legal obligation, such as debt bondage. On completion of the contract, indentured servants were given their freedom, and occasionally plots of land
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Diego López De Zúñiga, 4th Count Of Nieva
Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco, 4th Count of Nieva (Spanish: Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco, cuarto conde de Nieva) (ca. 1510 – February 20, 1564 in Lima, Peru) was the sixth viceroy of Peru, from April 17, 1561 to his death on February 20, 1564.Contents1 Early career 2 Viceroy of Peru 3 Death 4 References 5 External linksEarly career[edit] López de Zúñiga was a knight of the military Order of Santiago, and from 1553 to 1559, governor of Galicia. He was named Peruvian viceroy in late 1560 by King Philip II to replace Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete, who had been recalled. López de Zúñiga arrived in Lima
Lima
and took up the office on February 20, 1561. After his arrival in Peru
Peru
but before reaching the capital, he sent impertinent messages to his predecessor, just before the death of the latter
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Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Nahuatl
(English: /ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/;[4] Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈnaːwatɬ] ( listen)[cn 1]), known historically as Aztec,[3] is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
are spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live in central Mexico. Nahuatl
Nahuatl
has been spoken in central Mexico
Mexico
since at least the seventh century CE.[5] It was the language of the Aztecs, who dominated what is now central Mexico
Mexico
during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history
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Guarionex
Guarionex (Taíno language: "The Brave Noble Lord"[1]) was a Taíno cacique from Maguá in the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
at the time of the arrival of the Europeans
Europeans
to the Western Hemisphere in 1492.[2] He was the son of cacique Guacanagaríx, the great Taíno prophet who had the vision of the coming of the Guamikena (White Men). Since 1494 the Spaniards had imposed heavy tributes on the Taino population of Hispaniola. In 1495, Taino led by Caonabo raised up in arms but were crushed by Bartholomew Columbus. Guarionex then opted for accommodation and appeasement but by 1497 the situation had deteriorated further. Guarionex then sided with Spanish rebel Francisco Roldán and set out to attack the Spaniards. Columbus assembled his troops and attacked Guarionex's camp at night by surprise
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Cacique
A cacique (Spanish: [kaˈθike]; Portuguese: [kɐˈsikɨ, kaˈsiki]; feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards extended the word as a title for the leaders of practically all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere
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Indian Reductions
Reductions
Reductions
or reducciones (Spanish for "congregations") (Portuguese: redução, plural reduções) were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Latin America. The Spanish relocated native inhabitants (Indians), forcibly if necessary, into settlements which were modeled on towns and villages in Spain. In Portuguese speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias.A cathedral was always at the center of the reductions, this one in Loreto, Baja California
Baja California
Sur.The policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503. In the words of the Spanish rulers, "It is necessary that the Indians be assigned to towns in which they will live together and that they not remain or wander separated from each other in the backcountry." The Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built
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Makati
Makati
Makati
(/məˈkɑːti/ mə-KAH-tee Tagalog pronunciation: [maˈkati]), officially the City of Makati (Filipino: Lungsod ng Makati), in the Philippines, is one of the sixteen cities that make up Metro Manila. Makati
Makati
is the financial center of the Philippines; it has the highest concentration of multinational and local corporations in the country.[3] Major banks, corporations, department stores as well as foreign embassies are based in Makati. The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange
Philippine Stock Exchange
is situated along the city's Ayala Avenue.[4][5] Makati
Makati
is also known for being a major cultural and entertainment hub in Metro Manila.[6] With a population of 582,602, Makati
Makati
is the 17th-largest city in the country and ranked as the 41st most densely populated city in the world with 19,336 inhabitants per square kilometer
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Peru
Coordinates: 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú  (Spanish)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union"Anthem: "Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish) "National Anthem of Peru"National SealGran Sello del Estado  (Spanish) Great Seal of the StateLocation of  Peru  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Lima 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77
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Ward (law)
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Canada 3 United States 4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] The wardship jurisdiction is an ancient jurisdiction derived from the Crown's duty as parens patriae to protect his or her subject, and particularly those unable to look after themselves.[2] In the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, the Queen as parens patriae is mother for all the children in her realms [3]. A court may take responsibility for the legal protection of an individual, usually either a child or incapacitated person, in which case the ward is known as a ward of the court or a ward of the state. However, the House of Lords in the case of Re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) held that the Queen has no parens patriae jurisdiction with regard to mentally handicapped adults.[4] In Australia, New Zealand and the United States, the child is termed a ward of the court
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La Malinche
La Malinche
Malinche
(Spanish pronunciation: [la maˈlintʃe]; c. 1496 or c. 1501 – c. 1529), known also as Malinalli [maliˈnalːi], Malintzin [maˈlintsin] or Doña Marina [ˈdoɲa maˈɾina], was a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who played a role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, acting as an interpreter, advisor, and intermediary for the Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés
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New World
The New World
World
is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas
Americas
(including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas
Americas
in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a
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