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Empire
An EMPIRE is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire
Empire
, Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
, French Empire
Empire
, Persian Empire
Persian Empire
, Russian Empire
Empire
, German Empire
German Empire
, Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, or Roman Empire
Empire
". An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire , or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire . Aside from the more formal usage, the term "empire" can also be used to refer to a large-scale business enterprise (e.g
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Electoralism
ELECTORALISM is a term first used by Terry Karl , professor of political science at Stanford University
Stanford University
, to describe a "half-way" transition from authoritarian rule toward democratic rule. As a topic in the dominant party system political science literature, electoralism describes a situation where the transition out of hard-authoritarian rule is initiated and managed by the incumbent regime. However, due to the dominant position of the incumbent regime throughout the transition process, the transition fails to attain the institutional qualities of liberal democracy . Other terms, such as guided transition or managed transition have been used to describe this process. Under electoralism, the regime essentially conducts the electoral aspects of democratic governance in a relatively 'free and fair' manner. Massive acts of voting fraud and election-day intimidation are essentially absent
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Democratic Republic
A DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC is both a republic and a democracy . A republic is: * a sovereign state * whose ultimate power rests in its citizens entitled to vote * who (directly or indirectly) elect representatives to wield that power.A democracy is: * a form of government, whose power rests equally in its citizens, * who (directly or indirectly) elect representatives to wield that power.Absent qualification, not all citizens in a 'republic' are necessarily entitled to vote, and absent qualification, a 'democracy' is not necessarily sovereign. As both, a "democratic republic" is ideally: * a sovereign state, * whose ultimate power rests in its citizens, equally entitled to vote, * who (directly or indirectly) elect representatives to wield that power.In practice, governments only approximate those ideals. Not all persons in all states are citizens and not all citizens are entitled to vote
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Kritarchy
KRITARCHY is a system of rule by judges (Hebrew : שופטים‎, shoftim) in the tribal confederacy of ancient Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges
Book of Judges
, following Joshua
Joshua
's conquest of Canaan
Canaan
and prior to the united monarchy under Saul
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Particracy
PARTICRACY (also 'partitocracy', 'partocracy', or 'partitocrazia') is a de facto form of government where one or more political parties dominate the political process, rather than citizens and/or individual politicians . As argued by Italian political scientist Mauro Calise in 1994, the term is often derogatory, implying that parties have too much power—in a similar vein, in premodern times it was often argued that democracy was merely rule by the demos, or a poorly educated and easily misled mob. Efforts to turn "particracy" into a more precise scholarly concept so far merely appear partly successful
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Military Junta
A MILITARY DICTATORSHIP (also known as a MILITARY JUNTA ) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule, and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as “neutral” arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as “National Redemption Council", “Committee of National Restoration", or “National Liberation Committee". Military
Military
leaders often rule as a junta, selecting one of them as the head
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Types Of Democracy
TYPES OF DEMOCRACY refers to kinds of governments or social structures which allow people to participate equally, either directly or indirectly. CONTENTS * 1 Direct democracies * 2 Representative democracies * 3 Types based on location * 4 Types based on level of freedom * 5 Religious democracies * 6 Other types of democracy * 7 See also * 7.1 Further types * 8 References * 9 External links DIRECT DEMOCRACIESA direct democracy or pure democracy is a type of democracy where the people govern directly. It requires wide participation of citizens in politics. Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
or classical democracy refers to a direct democracy developed in ancient times in the Greek city-state of Athens. A popular democracy is a type of direct democracy based on referendums and other devices of empowerment and concretization of popular will
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Semi-democracy
The term SEMI-DEMOCRACY is used to refer to a state that shares both democratic and authoritarian features. The term "semi-democratic" is reserved for stable regimes that combine democratic and authoritarian elements. Most of them are dominant-party systems —that is, states where opposition parties are allowed and free elections are held. Sometimes the dominant party maintains power through election fraud , while other times the elections themselves are fair, but the electoral campaigns preceding them are not. A young and unstable democracy struggling toward improvement and consolidation is usually not classified as a semi-democratic country. The late 1980s and early 1990s have seen the demise of many different kinds of authoritarian governments: right-wing military dictatorships in Latin America
Latin America
, and various others in Africa
Africa

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Technocracy
TECHNOCRACY is a system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of technological knowledge. Scientists , engineers , technologists, or experts in any field, would compose the governing body, instead of elected representatives. Leadership skills would be selected on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than parliamentary skills . Technocracy
Technocracy
in that sense of the word (an entire government run as a technical or engineering problem) is mostly hypothetical . In another commonly used sense, technocracy is any portion of a bureaucracy that is run by technologists in technically and analytically sound ways. The term technocracy was originally used to advocate the application of the scientific method to solving social problems
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Oligarchy
OLIGARCHY (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility , wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical , relying on public obedience or oppression to exist. Aristotle
Aristotle
pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which another term commonly used today is plutocracy
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Totalitarian Democracy
TOTALITARIAN DEMOCRACY is a term popularized by Israeli historian J. L. Talmon to refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens , while granted the right to vote , have little or no participation in the decision-making process of the government. The phrase had previously been used by Bertrand de Jouvenel and E.H. Carr , and subsequently by F. William Engdahl and Sheldon S. Wolin . CONTENTS * 1 Criticism of Rousseau\'s ideas * 2 Differences in democratic philosophy * 2.1 Fundamental requirements * 2.2 Cold War
Cold War
and socio-economic illustrations * 3 F. William Engdahl and Sheldon S
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Anocracy
An ANOCRACY is a government regime featuring inherent qualities of political instability and ineffectiveness, as well as an "incoherent mix of democratic and autocratic traits and practices". These regime types are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of armed conflict and unexpected or adverse changes in leadership. Despite its popular usage, anocracy lacks a precise definition. Anocratic regimes are also loosely defined as part democracy and part dictatorship , or as a "regime that mixes democratic with autocratic features". Another definition classifies anocracy as "a regime that permits some means of participation through opposition group behavior but that has incomplete development of mechanisms to redress grievances". Scholars have also distinguished anocracies from autocracies and democracies in their capability to maintain authority, political dynamics, and policy agendas
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Federal Republic
A FEDERAL REPUBLIC is a federation of states with a republican form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen". In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction
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Military Dictatorship
A MILITARY DICTATORSHIP (also known as a MILITARY JUNTA ) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule, and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as “neutral” arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as “National Redemption Council", “Committee of National Restoration", or “National Liberation Committee". Military
Military
leaders often rule as a junta, selecting one of them as the head
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Civilian Dictatorship
A CIVILIAN DICTATORSHIP is a form of government different from military dictatorship and monarchies where the ruling dictator does not derive their power from the military. Among civilian dictatorships, dominant-party dictatorships tend to outlast personalistic dictatorships. SEE ALSO * Dictatorship
Dictatorship
* Comparative politics REFERENCES * ^ http://www3.nd.edu/~ggoertz/qmir/cheibub_etal2010.pdf * ^ William Roberts Clark; Matt Golder; Sona N Golder (23 March 2012). "Chapter 10. Varieties of Dictatorship". Principles of Comparative Politics. CQ Press. ISBN 978-1-60871-679-1 . Retrieved 8 April 2014. This chapter investigates different types of dictatorships and discusses several useful typologies. In particular, it identifies “support coalitions” as one way to distinguish among dictatorships, which leads to three main types: monarchies, military dictatorships and civilian dictatorships
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Representative Democracy
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (also INDIRECT DEMOCRACY, REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC, or PSEPHOCRACY) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy . Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a constitutional monarchy , Ireland is a parliamentary republic , and the United States
United States
is a federal republic . Representative democracy
Representative democracy
is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. It arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness and time effectiveness
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