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Emperor Of China
The Emperor or Huangdi (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin:  Huángdì) was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917. The holy title of Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ), a title much more elder than the Emperor of China
China
that predates the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
and recognized as the ruler of "All under Heaven" (i.e., the whole world)
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Mongols
The Mongols
Mongols
(Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɡɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia
Buryatia
and Kalmykia. The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
in IndonesiaKorean ConfucianismJapanese Confucianism
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China Proper
China
China
proper, Inner China
China
or the Eighteen Provinces[1] is a term historically used by Western writers on China
China
and the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China
China
proper, as many administrative, cultural, and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the North China
China
Plain; another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty
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Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
or the Zhou Kingdom (/dʒoʊ/;[4] Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu cháo [ʈʂóu ʈʂʰǎu]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history
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Han Chinese
The Han Chinese, Han people[27][28][29] or simply Han[28][29][30] (/hɑːn/;[31] Mandarin: [xân]; Han characters: 漢人 (Mandarin pinyin: Hànrén; literally "Han people"[32]) or 漢族 (pinyin: Hànzú; literally "Han ethnicity"[33] or "Han ethnic group"[34])) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation.[35] They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are mostly concentrated in Mainland China, where they make up about 92% of the total population.[2] The
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Dynasties In Chinese History
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.Contents1 Background 2 Dynasties of China 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBackground[edit] As one might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines, it is not usually the case that one dynasty transitions abruptly and smoothly into another. Rather, dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing reign, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1645 marks the year in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
armies overthrew the preceding Ming dynasty, according to the dynastic cycle of China. However, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
pretender was not deposed until 1663
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Shang Dynasty
The Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(/ʃɑːŋ/;[2] Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (/jɪn/; 殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
dated them from c
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Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
or the Zhou Kingdom (/dʒoʊ/;[4] Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu cháo [ʈʂóu ʈʂʰǎu]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history
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Old Chinese
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.[a] The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuozhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters, with each character representing a monosyllabic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word
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Reconstruction Of Old Chinese
Although Old Chinese is known from written records beginning around 1200 BC, the logographic script provides much more indirect and partial information about the pronunciation of the language than alphabetic systems used elsewhere. Several authors have produced reconstructions of Old Chinese phonology, beginning with the Swedish sinologist Bernard Karlgren in the 1940s and continuing to the present day. The method introduced by Karlgren is unique, comparing categories implied by ancient rhyming practice and the structure of Chinese characters with descriptions in medieval rhyme dictionaries, though more recent approaches have also incorporated other kinds of evidence. Although the various notations appear to be very different, they correspond with each other on most points. By the 1970s, it was generally agreed that Old Chinese had fewer points of articulation than Middle Chinese, a set of voiceless sonorants, and labiovelar and labio-laryngeal initials
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Qin's Wars Of Unification
Qin's wars of unification
Qin's wars of unification
were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi — within the territories that formed modern China. By the end of the wars in 221 BC, Qin had unified most of the states and occupied some lands south of the Yangtze River. The territories conquered by Qin served as the foundation of the Qin dynasty.Contents1 Background1.1 Rise of Qin2 Conquest of Han 3 Conquest of Zhao 4 Conquest of Yan 5 Conquest of Wei 6 Conquest of Chu 7 Conquest of Qi 8 Aftermath 9 Notes 10 References10.1 Citations 10.2 SourcesBackground[edit] China
China
in the Warring States period. Many of the smaller states, such as Ba and Zhongshan, had been conquered by the time Ying Zheng became the King of Qin
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Standard Mandarin
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Warring States Period
The Warring States period
Warring States period
(Chinese: 戰國時代; pinyin: Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history of intensive warfare all around China with the goal of creating one Chinese Empire, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire
Chinese empire
known as the Qin dynasty. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian's choice of 475 BC is the most often cited
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