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Empedocles
EMPEDOCLES (/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/ ; Greek : Ἐμπεδοκλῆς , _Empedoklēs_; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Acragas ( Agrigentum ), a Greek city in Sicily . Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements . He also proposed forces he called Love and Strife which would mix as well as separate the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans , Empedocles was a vegetarian who supported the doctrine of reincarnation . He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher
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Agrigento
AGRIGENTO _ listen (help ·info ) (Sicilian : Girgenti or Giurgenti_) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily , Italy, and capital of the province of Agrigento . It is renowned as the site of the ancient Greek city of AKRAGAS (also known as ACRAGAS (Ἀκράγας) in Greek, AGRIGENTUM in Latin and KIRKENT or JIRJENT in Arabic ), one of the leading cities of _ Magna Graecia _ during the golden age of Ancient Greece with population estimates in the range of 200,000 to 800,000 before 406 BC. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economy * 3 Main sights * 4 People * 5 International relations * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links HISTORY Agrigento was founded on a plateau overlooking the sea, with two nearby rivers, the Hypsas and the Akragas, and a ridge to the north offering a degree of natural fortification
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Sicily
SICILY (/ˈsɪsᵻli/ _SISS-i-lee_ ; Italian : _Sicilia_ , Sicilian : _Sicìlia_) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy
Italy
, along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as _Regione Siciliana_ (in Italian , Sicilian Region). Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula , from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina
Messina
. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna , the tallest active volcano in Europe, and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate . The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC
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Mount Etna
MOUNT ETNA (or ETNA; /ˈɛtnə/ ; Italian : _Etna_ or _Mongibello_ , Sicilian : _Mungibeddu_ or _â Muntagna_, Latin : _Aetna_) is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily
Sicily
, Italy
Italy
, in the Metropolitan City of Catania
Catania
, between the cities of Messina and Catania
Catania
. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate . It is the tallest active volcano in Europe
Europe
, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in Italy
Italy
south of the Alps
Alps
. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 km
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Pre-Socratic Philosophy
PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY is ancient Greek philosophy before Socrates and schools contemporary to Socrates that were not influenced by him. In Classical antiquity , the Presocratic philosophers were called _physiologoi_ (Greek : φυσιόλογοι; in English, physical or natural philosophers ). Aristotle called them _physikoi_ ("physicists", after _physis_, "nature ") because they sought natural explanations for phenomena , as opposed to the earlier _theologoi _ (theologians), whose philosophical basis was supernatural. Diogenes Laërtius divides the _physiologoi_ into two groups: Ionian , led by Anaximander , and the Italiote , led by Pythagoras
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Western Philosophy
WESTERN PHILOSOPHY or EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world . Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture , beginning with Hellenic (i.e. Greek) philosophy of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word _philosophy_ itself originated from the Hellenic: _philosophia_ (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν _philein_, "to love" and σοφία _sophia _, "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers , were _all_ intellectual endeavors
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Pluralist School
The PLURALIST SCHOOL was a school of pre-Socratic philosophers who attempted to reconcile Parmenides
Parmenides
' rejection of change with the apparently changing world of sense experience . The school consisted of Anaxagoras , Archelaus , and Empedocles . It can also be said to have included the Atomists , Leucippus
Leucippus
and Democritus
Democritus
. The Pluralists rejected the idea that the diversity of nature can be reduced to a single principle (monism ). Anaxagoras posited that nature contained an innumerable number of principles, while Empedocles reduced nature to four elements (fire , air , earth , and water ) which could not be reduced to one another and which would be sufficient to explain change and diversity
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Cosmogenesis
COSMOGONY (or COSMOGENY) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe . Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Compared with cosmology * 4 Theoretical scenarios * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe word comes from the Koine Greek κοσμογονία (from κόσμος "cosmos , the world") and the root of γί(γ)νομαι / γέγονα ("come into a new state of being"). In astronomy , cosmogony refers to the study of the origin of particular astrophysical objects or systems, and is most commonly used in reference to the origin of the Universe, the Solar System, or the Earth–Moon system
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Ontology
ONTOLOGY is the philosophical study of the nature of being , becoming , existence and/or reality , as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy , and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Although ontology as a philosophical enterprise is highly hypothetical, it also has practical application in information science and technology , such as ontology engineering
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Epistemology
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e EPISTEMOLOGY (/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/ (_ listen ); from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē_, meaning 'knowledge', and λόγος_, logos _, meaning 'logical discourse') is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge . Epistemology
Epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth , belief , and justification , (2) various problems of skepticism , (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. The term 'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in 1854
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Matter
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, MATTER is any substance that has mass and takes up space; this includes atoms and anything made up of these, but not other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound . More generally, however, in (modern ) physics , matter is not a fundamental concept because a universal definition of it is elusive; for example, the elementary constituents of atoms may be point particles, each having no volume individually. All the everyday objects that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are ultimately composed of atoms . This ordinary atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles —usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons , and a cloud of orbiting electrons . Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles , such as photons , are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume
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Water (classical Element)
WATER is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy , in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta , and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing . In contemporary esoteric traditions , it is commonly associated with the qualities of emotion and intuition . CONTENTS * 1 Greek and Roman tradition * 2 Indian tradition * 2.1 Astrological personalities * 2.2 Ceremonial magic * 3 Modern witchcraft * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links GREEK AND ROMAN TRADITION Water
Water
was one of many archai proposed by the Pre-socratics, most of whom tried to reduce all things to a single substance. However, Empedocles of Acragas (c. 495 – c. 435 BC) selected four archai for his four roots: air , fire , water and earth . Empedocles roots became the four classical elements of Greek philosophy. Plato
Plato
(427–347 BC) took over the four elements of Empedocles
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Earth (classical Element)
EARTH is one of the classical elements , in some systems numbering four along with air , fire , and water . CONTENTS * 1 European tradition * 2 Indian tradition * 3 Ceremonial magic * 4 Modern witchcraft * 5 Other traditions * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 External links EUROPEAN TRADITION Earth
Earth
(1681) by Benoît Massou, a statue of the Grande Commande , with allegorical attributes inspired by Cesare Ripa ’s Iconologia. Earth
Earth
is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and science. It was commonly associated with qualities of heaviness, matter and the terrestrial world. Due to the hero cults , and chthonic underworld deities , the element of earth is also associated with the sensual aspects of both life and death in later occultism . Empedocles of Acragas (c. 495 – c
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Air (classical Element)
AIR is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy . CONTENTS * 1 Greek and Roman tradition * 2 Modern reception * 3 Parallels in non-Western traditions * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References and further reading * 7 External links GREEK AND ROMAN TRADITIONAccording to Plato
Plato
, it is associated with the octahedron ; air is considered to be both hot and wet. The ancient Greeks used two words for air: aer meant the dim lower atmosphere, and aether meant the bright upper atmosphere above the clouds. Plato
Plato
, for instance writes that "So it is with air: there is the brightest variety which we call aether, the muddiest which we call mist and darkness, and other kinds for which we have no name...." Among the early Greek Pre-Socratic philosophers, Anaximenes (mid-6th century BCE) named air as the arche
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