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Empedocles
Empedocles
Empedocles
(/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/; Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς [empedoklɛ̂ːs], Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements. He also proposed forces he called Love
Love
and Strife which would mix as well as separate the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans, Empedocles
Empedocles
was a vegetarian who supported the doctrine of reincarnation. He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher
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Thurii
Thurii
Thurii
(/ˈθʊərɪaɪ/; Greek: Θούριοι Thoúrioi), called also by some Latin
Latin
writers Thurium (compare Greek: Θούριον in Ptolemy), for a time also Copia and Copiae, was a city of Magna Graecia, situated on the Tarentine gulf, within a short distance of the site of Sybaris, whose place it may be considered as having taken
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Arche
Arche (/ˈɑːrki/; Ancient Greek: ἀρχή) is a Greek word with primary senses "beginning", "origin" or "source of action". (εξ’ ἀρχής: from the beginning, οr εξ’ ἀρχής λόγος: the original argument), and later first principle or element, first so used by Anaximander
Anaximander
(Simplicius in Ph. 150.23), principles of knowledge (ἀρχαί) (Aristot. Metaph. 995b8). By extension, it may mean "first place, power", "method of government", "empire, realm", "authorities" (in plural: ἀρχαί), "command".[1] The first principle or element corresponds to the "ultimate underlying substance" and "ultimate undemonstrable principle".[2] In the philosophical language of the archaic period (8th to 6th century BC), arche (or archai) designates the source, origin or root of things that exist
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Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
of Messana (/ˌdɪsiˈɑːrkəs əv məˈsænə/; Greek: Δικαίαρχος Dikaiarkhos; c. 350 – c. 285 BC), also written Dicearchus or Dicearch (/ˈdɪsiˌɑːrk/), was a Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author. Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
was Aristotle's student in the Lyceum. Very little of his work remains extant. He wrote on the history and geography of Greece, of which his most important work was his Life of Greece. He made important contributions to the field of cartography, where he was among the first to use geographical coordinates. He also wrote books on philosophy and politics.Contents1 Life 2 Writings 3 References 4 Sources 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife[edit] He was the son of one Pheidias, and born at Messana in Sicily, though he passed the greater part of his life in Greece, and especially in Peloponnesus
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Timaeus (historian)
Timaeus (Ancient Greek: Τιμαῖος; c. 345 BC – c. 250 BC) was an ancient Greek historian.Contents1 Biography 2 Work 3 Reception 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further readingBiography[edit] He was born at Tauromenium (modern Taormina) in Sicily. Driven out of Sicily
Sicily
by Agathocles, he migrated to Athens, where he studied rhetoric under a pupil of Isocrates
Isocrates
and lived for fifty years. During the reign of Hiero II he returned to Sicily
Sicily
(probably to Syracuse), where he died.[1] Work[edit] While at Athens
Athens
he completed his great historical work, the Histories, probably some 40 books. This work was divided into unequal sections, containing the history of Greece from its earliest days till the first Punic war
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Oligarchy
Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command')[1][2][3] is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility, wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical, relying on public obedience or oppression to exist
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Oligarchic
Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command')[1][2][3] is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility, wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical, relying on public obedience or oppression to exist
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Thrasydaeus
Thrasydaeus, tyrant of Agrigentum, was the son and successor of Theron. Already during his father's lifetime he had been appointed to the government of Himera, where, by his violent and arbitrary conduct, he alienated the citizens, so that they were close to revolt. But when they applied for support to Hiero of Syracuse, he betrayed them to Theron, who, in consequence, put to death the leaders of the disaffected party, and re-established his authority.[1] Whether Thrasydaeus retained his position at Himera
Himera
after this, we know not: but on the death of Theron (472 BC) he succeeded without opposition in the sovereignty of both cities. His tyrannical and violent character soon displayed itself, and made him as unpopular at Agrigentum
Agrigentum
as he had been at Himera
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Hera
Hera
Hera
(/ˈhɛrə, ˈhɪərə/; Greek: Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus. She is the daughter of the Titans Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea. Hera
Hera
rules over Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
as queen of the gods. A matronly figure, Hera
Hera
served as both the patroness and protectress of married women, presiding over weddings and blessing marital unions. One of Hera's defining characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus' numerous lovers and illegitimate offspring, as well as the mortals who cross her. Hera
Hera
is commonly seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow, lion and the peacock
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Reincarnation
Reincarnation
Reincarnation
is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death
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Vegetarian
Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
/vɛdʒɪˈtɛəriənɪzəm/ is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.[1][2][3][4] Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference. There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs
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Cosmogenic
Environmental radioactivity
Environmental radioactivity
is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment. While some radioisotopes, such as strontium-90 (90Sr) and technetium-99 (99Tc), are only found on Earth
Earth
as a result of human activity, and some, like potassium-40 (40K), are only present due to natural processes, a few isotopes, e.g. tritium (3H), result from both natural processes and human activities
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat
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Neikea
In Greek mythology, the Neikea[pronunciation?] (Greek: Νείκεα; singular: Νεῖκος Neikos "quarrels") were goddesses of arguments. Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
identifies them as children of Eris (strife) through parthenogenesis and siblings of Ponos ("Hardship"), Lethe
Lethe
("Forgetfulness"), Limos ("Starvation"), Algae ("Pains"), Hysminai ("Battles"), Makhai ("Wars"), Phonoi ("Murders"), Androktasiai (Manslaughters"), Pseudea ("Lies"), Logoi ("Stories"), Amphillogiai ("Disputes"), Dysnomia ("Anarchy"), Ate ("Ruin"), and Horkos
Horkos
("Oath").[1] References[edit]^ Richard Caldwell, Hesiod's Theogony, Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company (June 1, 1987). ISBN 978-0-941051-00-2.External links[edit]Theoi Project: Phonoi, Greek gods or spirits of quarrels and grievancesThis article relating to a Greek deity is a stub
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