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Emirate Of Córdoba
The Emirate
Emirate
of Córdoba (Arabic: إمارة قرطبة‎, Imārah Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital. After the Umayyad conquest of Hispania
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
in 711–718, the Iberian Peninsula was established as a province under the Umayyad Caliphate. The rulers of this province established their capital in Córdoba and received from the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
the title of wali or emir. In 756, Abd al-Rahman I, a prince of the deposed Umayyad royal family, refused to recognize the authority of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and became an independent emir of Córdoba. He had been on the run for six years after the Umayyads had lost the position of caliph in Damascus
Damascus
in 750 to the Abbasids
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Al-Azm Family
Al-Azm family
Al-Azm family
(Arabic: آل العظم‎) is a prominent Damascene family. Their political influence in Ottoman Syria
Syria
began in the 18th century when members of the family administered Maarrat al-Nu'man
Maarrat al-Nu'man
and Hama. A scion of the family, Ismail Pasha al-Azm, was appointed wāli of Damascus
Damascus
Eyalet in 1725. Between 1725 and 1783, members of the family, including As'ad Pasha al-Azm, held power in Damascus
Damascus
for 47 years, in addition to periodical appointments in Sidon Eyalet, Tripoli Eyalet, Hama, Aleppo
Aleppo
Eyalet,[1] and Egypt Eyalet
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
(Persian: شروانشاه‎, Azerbaijani: Şirvanşah), also spelled as Shīrwān Shāh or Sharwān Shāh, was the title of the rulers of Shirvan, located in modern Azerbaijan, from the mid-9th century to the early 16th century
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Alid Dynasties Of Northern Iran
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Rawadid Dynasty
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim
Muslim
ruling family of Arab descent[1] during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan).[2] Originally of Arab descent, the Rawadids ruled Tabriz
Tabri

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Ghassanids
The Ghassanids
Ghassanids
(Arabic: الغساسنة‎‏; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were an Arab
Arab
kingdom, founded by descendants of the
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Royal Family Of Emesa
In the context of human society, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family"[citation needed] [...] from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave [...]'[1]) or some combination of these.[citation needed] Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters[citation needed]. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law[citation needed]
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Kingdom Of Himyar
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (Arabic: مملكة حِمْيَر‎, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, Hebrew: ממלכת חִמְיָר‬) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen. Established in 110 BCE, it took as its capital the ancient city of Zafar, to be followed at the beginning of the 4th century by what is the modern-day city of Sana'a.[1] The kingdom conquered neighbouring Saba' (Sheba) in c. 25 BCE
BCE
(for the first time), Qataban
Qataban
in c. 200 CE, and Haḍramaut c. 300 CE
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Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content;[1] it is also used in modernized versions of the Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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Nabataean Kingdom
The Nabataean Kingdom
Nabataean Kingdom
(Arabic: المملكة النبطية‎), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans
Nabataeans
during classical antiquity. Nabataea remained independent from the 4th century BC until it was an
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Qataban
Qataban
Qataban
or Katabania (Arabic: مملكة قتبان; Musnad: 𐩤𐩩𐩨𐩬) was an ancient Yemeni kingdom. Its heartland was located in the Baihan
Baihan
valley. Like some other Southern Arabian kingdoms it gained great wealth from the trade of frankincense and myrrh, incenses which were burned at altars. The capital of Qataban was named Timna
Timna
and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba
Sheba
and Ma'in. The chief deity of the Qatabanians
Qatabanians
was Amm, or "Uncle" and the people called themselves the "children of Amm". It was a prominent Yemeni kingdom in the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BCE, when its ruler held the title of the South Arabian hegemon, Mukarrib. Bibliography[edit]Alessandro de Maigret. Arabia Felix, translated Rebecca Thompson. London: Stacey International, 2002
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Lihyan
Lihyan
Lihyan
(Arabic: لحيان) (Greek: Lechienoi)[1] or Dadan or Dedan is an Ancient North Arabian kingdom. It was located in northwestern Arabia, and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. the 6th to 4th centuries BC. Dedanite is used for the older phase of the history of this kingdom since their capital name was Dedan (see Biblical Dedan), which is now called Al-`Ula
Al-`Ula
oasis located in northwestern Arabia, some 110 km southwest of Teima. The Lihyanites later became the enemies of the Nabataeans. The Romans invaded the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
and destroyed their kingdom in 106 AD. This encouraged the Lihyanites to establish an independent Kingdom to manage their country
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Minaeans
The Minaean people were the inhabitants of the kingdom of Ma'in (Old South Arabian mʿn, vocalized Maʿīn; modern Arabic معين Maʿīn) in modern-day Yemen, dating back to the 6th century BCE-150 BCE.[1] It was located along the strip of desert called Ṣayhad by medieval Arab geographers, which is now known as Ramlat Dehem. The Minaean people were one of four ancient Yemeni groups mentioned by Eratosthenes. The others were the Sabaeans, Ḥaḑramites and Qatabānians
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Kingdom Of Awsan
The ancient Kingdom of Awsān in South Arabia
South Arabia
(modern Yemen), with a capital at Ḥajar Yaḥirr in Wādī Markhah, to the south of Wādī Bayḥān, is now marked by a tell or artificial mound, which is locally named Ḥajar Asfal. Once it was one of the most important small kingdoms of South Arabia. The city seems to have been destroyed in the 7th century BCE by the king and Mukarrib of Saba' Karab El Watar, according to a Sabaean text that reports the victory in terms that attest to its significance for the Sabaeans. History[edit]bull head from Kingdom of Awsan.First impressions in the mid-1990s, based on ceramics found by M
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Dulafid Dynasty
The Dulafid or Dolafid dynasty was an Arab
Arab
dynasty that served as governors of Jibal
Jibal
for the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs in the 9th century. During the weakening of the authority of the caliphs after 861, their rule in Jibal
Jibal
became increasingly independent of the central government in Samarra
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