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Embedded Computer System
An EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured as components of embedded systems. Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with
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MP3 Player
An MP3
MP3
PLAYER or DIGITAL AUDIO PLAYER is an electronic device that can play digital audio files. It is a type of Portable Media Player
Portable Media Player
. The term ' MP3
MP3
player' is a misnomer, as most players play more than the MP3
MP3
file format. Since the MP3
MP3
format is widely used, almost all players can play that format. In addition, there are many other digital audio formats. Some formats are proprietary, such as MP3, Windows Media Audio (WMA), and Advanced Audio Coding (AAC). Some of these formats also may incorporate digital rights management (DRM), such as WMA DRM, which are often part of paid download sites. Other formats are patent-free or otherwise open, such as Vorbis , FLAC , and Speex (all part of the Ogg open multimedia project)
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Consumer Electronics
CONSUMER ELECTRONICS or HOME ELECTRONICS are electronic or digital equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics
Consumer electronics
include devices used for entertainment (flatscreen TVs, DVD players , DVD movies , iPods , video games , remote control cars , etc.), communications (telephones , cell phones , e-mail -capable laptops , etc.), and home-office activities (e.g., desktop computers , printers , paper shredders , etc.). In British English, they are often called BROWN GOODS by producers and sellers, to distinguish them from "white goods" such as washing machines and refrigerators . In the 2010s, this distinction is not always present in large big box consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy
Best Buy
, which sell both entertainment, communications, and home office devices and kitchen appliances such as refrigerators
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Videogame Console
A VIDEO GAME CONSOLE is an electronic , digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is primarily used to distinguish a console machine primarily designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers . An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, display, game controller (joystick, buttons, etc.) and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles , handheld game consoles , microconsoles and dedicated consoles
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Digital Camera
A DIGITAL CAMERA or DIGICAM is a camera that produces images that can be stored in digital memory , displayed on a screen and printed on physical media. Most cameras produced today are digital, and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones ) to vehicles. Digital and movie cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images from memory . Many digital cameras can also record moving videos with sound . Some digital cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing
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Global Positioning System
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
GPS
satellites. The GPS
GPS
system does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information. The GPS
GPS
system provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world
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Network Bridge
A NETWORK BRIDGE is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments . This function is called NETWORK BRIDGING. Bridging is distinct from routing , as routing allows multiple different networks to communicate independently while remaining separate whilst bridging connects two separate networks as if they are only one network (hence the name "bridging"). In the OSI model
OSI model
, bridging is performed in the first two layers, below the network layer (layer 3). If one or more segments of the bridged network are wireless , the device is known as a WIRELESS BRIDGE and the function as WIRELESS BRIDGING. There are four types of network bridging technologies: simple bridging, multiport bridging, learning or transparent bridging, and source route bridging
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Cell Phone
A MOBILE PHONE is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator , which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are often also called cellular telephones or cell phones. In addition to telephony , 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services , such as text messaging , MMS , email , Internet access , short-range wireless communications (infrared , Bluetooth
Bluetooth
), business applications, gaming, and digital photography . Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones . The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F
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Analog Electronics
ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS (also spelled ANALOG ELECTRONICS) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels . The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional". CONTENTS * 1 Analogue signals * 2 Inherent noise * 3 Analogue vs digital electronics * 3.1 Noise
Noise
* 3.2 Precision * 3.3 Design difficulty * 4 See also * 5 References ANALOGUE SIGNALS Main article: Analogue signal An analogue signal uses some attribute of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses the angular position of a needle as the signal to convey the information of changes in atmospheric pressure
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Potentiometer
A POTENTIOMETER is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider . If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a VARIABLE RESISTOR or RHEOSTAT. The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider used for measuring electric potential (voltage); the component is an implementation of the same principle, hence its name. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers , for example, in a joystick . Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt ), since the power dissipated in the potentiometer would be comparable to the power in the controlled load
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Variable Capacitor
A VARIABLE CAPACITOR is a capacitor whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed mechanically or electronically. Variable capacitors are often used in L/C circuits to set the resonance frequency, e.g. to tune a radio (therefore it is sometimes called a TUNING CAPACITOR or TUNING CONDENSER), or as a variable reactance , e.g. for impedance matching in antenna tuners
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Telephone Switch
A TELEPHONE EXCHANGE is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises. An exchange consists of electronic components and in older systems also human operators that interconnect (switch) telephone subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital systems to establish telephone calls between subscribers. In historical perspective, telecommunication terms have been used with different semantics over time. The term telephone exchange is often used synonymously with central office (CO), a Bell System
Bell System
term. Often, a central office is defined as a building used to house the inside plant equipment of potentially several telephone exchanges, each serving a certain geographical area. Such an area has also been referred to as the exchange. Central office locations may also be identified in North America as wire centers, designating a facility from which a telephone obtains dial tone
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Computer Printer
In computing , a PRINTER is a peripheral which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper or similar physical media. The first computer printer design was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
for his difference engine in the 19th century; his mechanical printer design was not built until 2000. The first electronic printer was the EP-101 , invented by Japanese company Epson
Epson
and released in 1968. The first commercial printers generally used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems specifically for computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, and dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced relatively low-quality output
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Microwave Oven
A MICROWAVE OVEN (commonly referred to as a MICROWAVE) is a kitchen appliance that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range. This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a process known as dielectric heating . Microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly uniform in the outer 25–38 mm (1–1.5 inches) of a homogeneous , high water content food item; food is more evenly heated throughout than generally occurs in other cooking techniques. Percy Spencer is generally credited with inventing the modern microwave oven after World War II
World War II
from radar technology developed during the war
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Brushless DC Motor
BRUSHLESS DC ELECTRIC MOTOR (BLDC MOTORS, BL MOTORS) also known as ELECTRONICALLY COMMUTATED MOTORS (ECMs, EC motors), or SYNCHRONOUS DC MOTORS, are synchronous motors powered by DC electricity via an inverter or switching power supply which produces an AC electric current to drive each phase of the motor via a closed loop controller . The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings that control the speed and torque of the motor. The construction of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), but can also be a switched reluctance motor , or an induction (asynchronous) motor . The advantages of a brushless motor over brushed motors are high power to weight ratio, high speed, and electronic control. Brushless motors find applications in such places as computer peripherals (disk drives, printers), hand-held power tools, and vehicles ranging from model aircraft to automobiles. CONTENTS* 1 Brushless vs
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Inertial Guidance System
An INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer , motion sensors (accelerometers ) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes ) to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references. It is used on vehicles such as ships , aircraft , submarines