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Elm Yellows
Elm
Elm
yellows is a plant disease of elm trees that is spread by leafhoppers or by root grafts.[1] Elm
Elm
yellows, also known as elm phloem necrosis, is very aggressive, with no known cure. Elm
Elm
yellows occurs in the eastern United States, and southern Ontario
Ontario
in Canada. It is caused by phytoplasmas which infect the phloem (inner bark) of the tree.[2] Similar phytoplasmas, also known confusingly as 'Elm yellows', also occur in Europe.[3] Infection and death of the phloem effectively girdles the tree and stops the flow of water and nutrients. The disease affects both wild-growing and cultivated trees.Contents1 Importance 2 Transmission 3 Symptoms 4 Control 5 References 6 See alsoImportance[edit] Elms are very important to the American landscape, prized for their unique shade characteristics
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Phytoplasma
Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant-to-plant transmission. Phytoplasmas were discovered in 1967 by Japanese scientists who termed them mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs).[2] Since their discovery, phytoplasmas have resisted all attempts at in vitro culture in any cell-free medium; routine cultivation in an artificial medium thus remains a major challenge
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Cornell University
Cornell University
University
(/kɔːrˈnɛl/ kor-NEL) is a private and statutory Ivy League
Ivy League
research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell
Ezra Cornell
and Andrew Dickson White,[7] the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."[1] The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Plant Pathology
Plant
Plant
pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).[1] Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by consumption of plant tissues
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Cell Wall
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls
Cell walls
are present in most prokaryotes (except mycoplasma bacteria), in algae, plants and fungi but rarely in other eukaryotes including animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters. The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Often, other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls
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Ribosome
The ribosome (/ˈraɪbəˌsoʊm, -boʊ-/[1]) is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunits, which reads the RNA, and the large subunits, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA
RNA
(rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins (r-protein or rProtein[2][3][4])
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Transfer RNA
A transfer RNA
RNA
(abbreviated t RNA
RNA
and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length,[2] that serves as the physical link between the m RNA
RNA
and the amino acid sequence of proteins. t RNA
RNA
does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon) in a messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA)
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Birch Beer
Birch
Birch
beer in its most common form is a carbonated soft drink made from herbal extracts, usually from birch bark, although in the colonial era birch beer was made with herbal extracts of oak bark.[1] It has a taste similar to root beer. There are dozens of brands of birch beer available.[2] Various types of birch beer made from birch sap are available as well, distinguished by color. The color depends on the species of birch tree from which the sap is extracted (though enhancements via artificial coloring are common presently). Popular colors include brown, red, blue and clear (often called white birch beer), though others are possible. This drink is most commonly found in the Northeastern United States, and Newfoundland in Canada. After the sap is collected, it is distilled to make birch oil. The oil is added to the carbonated drink to give it the distinctive flavor, reminiscent of teaberry. Black birch is the most common source of extract
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Betula Lenta
Betula
Betula
lenta (sweet birch, also known as black birch, cherry birch, mahogany birch, or spice birch) is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine
Maine
west to southernmost Ontario, and south in the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
to northern Georgia. Characteristics and habitat[edit] Betula
Betula
lenta is a medium-sized deciduous tree reaching 25 m (82 ft) tall[1] with a trunk up to 60 cm (2.0 ft) diameter. In younger trees the bark is characteristic of most birches, with smooth bark and distinct horizontal lenticels. It is sometimes mistakenly identified as a cherry tree. In some older tree specimens the bark can (unlike most birches) develop vertical cracks into irregular scaly plates revealing rough darkish brown bark patterns. This, however, does not occur in all specimens
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Philaenus
8, see textPhilaenus is a genus of insects belonging to the family Aphrophoridae, the spittlebugs. The meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius is a common insect in much of the Northern Hemisphere, and it is sometimes a pest on crops such as alfalfa.[1] It is important to science because its entire genome has been sequenced.[2] It has also been the subject of many studies of genetic diversity because it displays marked color polymorphism. There are eleven known color phenotypes, with individuals taking various dark, pale, mottled, and striped patterns.[3] Most other Philaenus species are also color polymorphic.[4] Many species are polyphagous, feeding on a number of plants
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State College, Pennsylvania
State College is a home rule municipality in Centre County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the largest designated borough in Pennsylvania.[4] It is the principal borough of the six municipalities that make up the State College Metropolitan Statistical Area, the largest settlement in Centre County and one of the principal cities of the greater State College-DuBois Combined Statistical Area with a combined population of 236,577 as of the 2010 United States Census
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Dutch Elm Disease
Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease
(DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles. Although believed to be originally native to Asia, the disease was accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native populations of elms that did not have resistance to the disease. It has also reached New Zealand
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Penn State University
The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855, the university has a stated threefold mission of teaching, research, and public service. Its instructional mission[12] includes undergraduate, graduate, professional and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township. It has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, and Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey
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Phloem
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose,[1] to parts of the plant where needed. This transport process is called translocation.[2] In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark, hence the name, derived from the Greek word φλοιός (phloios) meaning "bark"
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Phytoplasmas
Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant-to-plant transmission. Phytoplasmas were discovered in 1967 by Japanese scientists who termed them mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs).[2] Since their discovery, phytoplasmas have resisted all attempts at in vitro culture in any cell-free medium; routine cultivation in an artificial medium thus remains a major challenge
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