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Ellipsis (linguistics)
In linguistics, ELLIPSIS (from the Greek : ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission") or ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTION refers to the omission, from a clause , of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements. There are numerous distinct types of ellipsis acknowledged in theoretical syntax. This article provides an overview of them. Theoretical accounts of ellipsis can vary greatly depending in part upon whether a constituency -based or a dependency -based theory of syntactic structure is pursued
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Interrogative Word
An INTERROGATIVE WORD or QUESTION WORD is a function word used to ask a question , such as what, when, where, who , whom, why, and how. They are sometimes called WH-WORDS, because in English most of them start with wh- (compare Five Ws
Five Ws
). They may be used in both direct questions (Where is he going?) and in indirect questions (I wonder where he is going). In English and various other languages the same forms are also used as relative pronouns in certain relative clauses (The country where he was born) and certain adverb clauses (I go where he goes). A particular type of interrogative word is the INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE, which serves to convert a statement into a yes–no question , without having any other meaning. Examples include est-ce que in French , ли li in Russian , czy in Polish , কি ki in Bengali , 吗 ma in Chinese , mı/mi in Turkish , か ka in Japanese and ko/kö in Finnish
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Constituent (linguistics)
In syntactic analysis, a CONSTITUENT is a word or a group of words that function(s) as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. The analysis of constituent structure is associated mainly with phrase structure grammars , although dependency grammars also allow sentence structure to be broken down into constituent parts. The constituent structure of sentences is identified using constituency tests. These tests manipulate some portion of a sentence and based on the result, clues are delivered about the immediate constituent structure of the sentence. Many constituents are phrases . A phrase is a sequence of one or more words (in some theories two or more) built around a head lexical item and working as a unit within a sentence. A word sequence is shown to be a phrase/constituent if it exhibits one or more of the behaviors discussed below
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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Zero (linguistics)
In linguistics , a ZERO or NULL is a segment which is not pronounced or written. It is a useful concept in analysis, indicating lack of an element where one might be expected. It is usually written with the symbol "∅", in Unicode U+2205 ∅ Empty set (HTML · ). A common ad hoc solution is to use the Scandinavian capital letter Ø instead. There are several kinds of zero: In phonetics : * A null phoneme indicates that no phone is produced where one might be expected. For example, in syllable structure analysis, null onset indicates that a syllable lacks an initial consonant (onset) that is normally required by phonotactics of the considered language. For an example, see Standard Chinese phonology#Zero onset .In morphology : * A zero morph , consisting of no phonetic form, is an allomorph of a morpheme that is otherwise realized in speech
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Non-finite Verb
A NONFINITE VERB is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs ; they cannot serve as the root of an independent clause . Most nonfinite verbs found in English are infinitives , participles and gerunds . (They sometimes are called verbals, but that term has traditionally applied only to participles and gerunds.) Additional nonfinite forms found in some other languages include converbs , gerundives and supines . Nonfinite verbs typically are not inflected by grammatical tense , and they have little inflection for other grammatical categories . Generally, they also lack a subject dependent. One or more nonfinite verbs may be associated with a finite verb in a finite clause: the elements of a verb catena , or verb chain
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Phrase Structure Grammar
The term PHRASE STRUCTURE GRAMMAR was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky as the term for grammars as defined by phrase structure rules , i.e. rewrite rules of the type studied previously by Emil Post and Axel Thue (Post canonical systems ). Some authors, however, reserve the term for more restricted grammars in the Chomsky hierarchy : context-sensitive grammars or context-free grammars . In a broader sense, phrase structure grammars are also known as constituency grammars. The defining trait of phrase structure grammars is thus their adherence to the constituency relation, as opposed to the dependency relation of dependency grammars
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Linguistics
LINGUISTICS is the scientific study of language , and involves an analysis of language form , language meaning , and language in context . The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini , who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his _Aṣṭādhyāyī_. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning . Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning , on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity
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Dependency Grammar
DEPENDENCY GRAMMAR (DG) is a class of modern syntactic theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière . Dependency is the notion that linguistic units, e.g. words, are connected to each other by directed links. The (finite) verb is taken to be the structural center of clause structure. All other syntactic units (words) are either directly or indirectly connected to the verb in terms of the directed links, which are called dependencies. DGs are distinct from phrase structure grammars (constituency grammars), since DGs lack phrasal nodes, although they acknowledge phrases. Structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head ) and its dependents
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Clause
In grammar , a CLAUSE is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition . A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate , the latter typically a verb phrase , a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses ). A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (_matrix clauses_, _independent clauses _) are those that can stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate clauses (_embedded clauses_, _dependent clauses _) are those that would be awkward or incomplete if they were alone
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