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Ellipsis (linguistics)
In linguistics, ELLIPSIS (from the Greek : ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission") or ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTION refers to the omission, from a clause , of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements. There are numerous distinct types of ellipsis acknowledged in theoretical syntax. This article provides an overview of them. Theoretical accounts of ellipsis can vary greatly depending in part upon whether a constituency -based or a dependency -based theory of syntactic structure is pursued
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Zero (linguistics)
In linguistics , a ZERO is a constituent needed in analysis but not realized in speech. Specifically in phonology , it refers to an element that is phonologically null. This implies that there is a lack of an element where a theory would expect one. It is usually written with the symbol "∅", in Unicode U+2205 ∅ Empty set
Empty set
(HTML · ). A common ad hoc solution is to use the Scandinavian capital letter Ø instead. There are several kind of zeros: * A ZERO MORPH , consisting of no phonetic form, is an allomorph of a morpheme that is otherwise realized in speech. In the phrase two sheep-∅, the plural marker is a zero morph, which is an allomorph of -s as in two cowS. In the phrase I like-∅ it, the verb conjugation has a zero affix, as opposed to the third-person singular present -s in he likeS it. * A zero pronoun occurs in some languages
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Non-finite Verb
A NONFINITE VERB is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs ; they cannot serve as the root of an independent clause . Most nonfinite verbs found in English are infinitives , participles and gerunds . (They sometimes are called verbals, but that term has traditionally applied only to participles and gerunds.) Additional nonfinite forms found in some other languages include converbs , gerundives and supines . Nonfinite verbs typically are not inflected by grammatical tense , and they have little inflection for other grammatical categories . Generally, they also lack a subject dependent. One or more nonfinite verbs may be associated with a finite verb in a finite clause: the elements of a verb catena , or verb chain
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Constituent (linguistics)
In syntactic analysis, a CONSTITUENT is a word or a group of words that function(s) as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. The analysis of constituent structure is associated mainly with phrase structure grammars , although dependency grammars also allow sentence structure to be broken down into constituent parts. The constituent structure of sentences is identified using constituency tests. These tests manipulate some portion of a sentence and based on the result, clues are delivered about the immediate constituent structure of the sentence. Many constituents are phrases . A phrase is a sequence of one or more words (in some theories two or more) built around a head lexical item and working as a unit within a sentence. A word sequence is shown to be a phrase/constituent if it exhibits one or more of the behaviors discussed below
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Interrogative Word
An INTERROGATIVE WORD or QUESTION WORD is a function word used to ask a question , such as what, when, where, who , whom, why, and how. They are sometimes called WH-WORDS, because in English most of them start with wh- (compare Five Ws ). They may be used in both direct questions (Where is he going?) and in indirect questions (I wonder where he is going). In English and various other languages the same forms are also used as relative pronouns in certain relative clauses (The country where he was born) and certain adverb clauses (I go where he goes). A particular type of interrogative word is the INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE, which serves to convert a statement into a yes–no question , without having any other meaning. Examples include est-ce que in French , ли li in Russian , czy in Polish , কি ki in Bengali , 吗 ma in Chinese , mı/mi in Turkish , か ka in Japanese and ko/kö in Finnish
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Generative Linguistics
GENERATIVE GRAMMAR is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language . Noam Chomsky first used the term in relation to the theoretical linguistics of grammar that he developed in the late 1950s. Linguists who follow the generative approach have been called GENERATIVISTS. The generative school has focused on the study of syntax , but has also addressed other aspects of a language's structure, including morphology and phonology . Early versions of Chomsky's theory were called transformational grammar , which is still used as a general term that includes his subsequent theories
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Phrase Structure Grammar
The term PHRASE STRUCTURE GRAMMAR was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky as the term for grammars as defined by phrase structure rules , i.e. rewrite rules of the type studied previously by Emil Post and Axel Thue (Post canonical systems ). Some authors, however, reserve the term for more restricted grammars in the Chomsky hierarchy : context-sensitive grammars or context-free grammars . In a broader sense, phrase structure grammars are also known as constituency grammars. The defining trait of phrase structure grammars is thus their adherence to the constituency relation, as opposed to the dependency relation of dependency grammars
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Clause
In grammar , a CLAUSE is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition . A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate , the latter typically a verb phrase , a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses ). A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (matrix clauses, independent clauses ) are those that can stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate clauses (embedded clauses, dependent clauses ) are those that would be awkward or incomplete if they were alone
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Semantics
SEMANTICS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: σημαντικός sēmantikos, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning , in language , programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics . It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words , phrases , signs , and symbols —and what they stand for, their denotation . In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology . The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal , a French philologist. It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation . This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics
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Dependency Grammar
DEPENDENCY GRAMMAR (DG) is a class of modern syntactic theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière . Dependency is the notion that linguistic units, e.g. words, are connected to each other by directed links. The (finite) verb is taken to be the structural center of clause structure. All other syntactic units (words) are either directly or indirectly connected to the verb in terms of the directed links, which are called dependencies. DGs are distinct from phrase structure grammars (constituency grammars), since DGs lack phrasal nodes, although they acknowledge phrases. Structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head ) and its dependents
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Linguistics
LINGUISTICS is the scientific study of language , and involves an analysis of language form , language meaning , and language in context . The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini
Pāṇini
, who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning . Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning , on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity
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Noun Ellipsis
NOUN ELLIPSIS (N-ellipsis), also NOUN PHRASE ELLIPSIS (NPE), is a mechanism that elides, or appears to elide, part of a noun phrase that can be recovered from context. The mechanism is present in many languages, English being one of them, although the occurrence of N-ellipsis in English is more restricted than in related languages. Theoretical analyses of N-ellipsis vary, there being at least three types of approaches to the phenomenon that a theory can pursue: 1) the true ellipsis analysis, 2) the covert pronoun analysis, and 3) the overt pronoun analysis. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Systematic variation * 3 The elided material * 4 Theoretical possibilities * 5 Notes * 6 Literature * 7 See also EXAMPLESStandard instances of N-ellipsis in English are introduced by a limited set of determiner- and adjective-like elements (possessives, cardinal and ordinal numbers, other quantifiers)
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Catena (linguistics)
In linguistics , the CATENA (English pronounciation /kəˈtiːnə/ , Latin
Latin
for "chain"; plural CATENAE) is a unit of syntax and morphology , closely associated with dependency grammars . It is a more flexible and inclusive unit than the constituent and may therefore be better suited than the constituent to serve as the fundamental unit of syntactic and morphosyntactic analysis. The catena concept was introduced to linguistics by William O\'Grady in 1998 and has been seized upon by other linguists and applied to the syntax of idiosyncratic meaning of all sorts, such as ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping , stripping , VP-ellipsis , pseudogapping , sluicing , answer ellipsis , comparative deletion), predicate -argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization , wh-fronting , scrambling , extraposition , etc.)
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Verb Phrase Ellipsis
In linguistics , VERB PHRASE ELLIPSIS (VP-ELLIPSIS or VPE) is an elliptical construction in which a non-finite verb phrase has been left out (elided), e.g. She will sell sea shells, and he will sell sea shells too. VP-ellipsis is a well-studied kind of ellipsis, particularly with regard to its occurrence in English, although certain types can be found in other languages as well. CONTENTS * 1 Features of verb phrase ellipsis in English * 2 The direction of ellipsis * 3 Antecedent-contained ellipsis * 4 Argument contained ellipsis * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References FEATURES OF VERB PHRASE ELLIPSIS IN ENGLISHIn the types of VP-ellipsis considered here, which are features of English grammar , the elided VP must be a non-finite VP; it cannot be a finite VP. Further, the ellipsis must be introduced by an auxiliary verb (be, can, do, don't, could, have, may, might, shall, should, will, won't, would, etc.) or by the infinitive particle to
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