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Elevation (ballistics)
In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery. Originally, elevation was a linear measure of how high the gunners had to physically lift the muzzle of a gun up from the gun carriage to hit targets at a certain distance.Contents1 Pre-WWI and WWI 2 WWII and beyond 3 See also 4 ReferencesPre-WWI and WWI[edit] Though early 20th-century firearms were relatively easy to fire, artillery was not. Before and during World War I, the only way to effectively fire artillery was plotting points on a plane. Most artillery units seldom employed their cannons in small numbers. Instead of using pin-point artillery firing they used old means of "fire for effect" using artillery en masse. This tactic was employed successfully by past armies. But changes have been made since past wars and in World War I, artillery was more accurate than before, although not as accurate as artillery one century newer
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Warships
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state.[1] As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and more maneuverable than merchant ships. Unlike a merchant ship, which carries cargo, a warship typically carries only weapons, ammunition and supplies for its crew. Warships usually belong to a navy, though they have also been operated by individuals, cooperatives and corporations. In wartime, the distinction between warships and merchant ships is often blurred. In war, merchant ships are often armed and used as auxiliary warships, such as the Q-ships of the First World War
First World War
and the armed merchant cruisers of the Second World War. Until the 17th century it was common for merchant ships to be pressed into naval service and not unusual for more than half a fleet to be composed of merchant ships
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Altitude (astronomy)
The horizontal coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system that uses the observer's local horizon as the fundamental plane. It is expressed in terms of altitude (or elevation) angle and azimuth.Contents1 Definition 2 General observations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] This coordinate system divides the sky into the upper hemisphere where objects are visible, and the lower hemisphere where objects cannot be seen since the Earth obstructs vision. The great circle separating the hemispheres is called the celestial horizon. The celestial horizon is defined as the great circle on the celestial sphere whose plane is normal to the local gravity vector.[citation needed] In practice, the horizon can be defined as the plane tangent to a still liquid surface such as a pool of mercury.[1] The pole of the upper hemisphere is called the zenith
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Laser Rangefinder
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder which uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object. The most common form of laser rangefinder operates on the time of flight principle by sending a laser pulse in a narrow beam towards the object and measuring the time taken by the pulse to be reflected off the target and returned to the sender. Due to the high speed of light, this technique is not appropriate for high precision sub-millimeter measurements, where triangulation and other techniques are often used. Contents1 Pulse 2 Precision 3 Range and range error 4 Calculation 5 Technologies 6 Applications6.1 Military 6.2 3-D modeling 6.3 Forestry 6.4 Sports 6.5 Industrial production processes 6.6 Laser
Laser
measuring tools7 Price 8 Safety 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksPulse[edit] The pulse may be coded to reduce the chance that the rangefinder can be jammed
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Fire-control System
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target
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Velocity
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time. Velocity is equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of motion (e.g. 7001600000000000000♠60 km/h to the north). Velocity
Velocity
is an important concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies. Velocity
Velocity
is a physical vector quantity; both magnitude and direction are needed to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of velocity is called "speed", being a coherent derived unit whose quantity is measured in the SI (metric system) as metres per second (m/s) or as the SI base unit of (m⋅s−1). For example, "5 metres per second" is a scalar, whereas "5 metres per second east" is a vector
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Artillery Battery
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.[citation needed] The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships.Contents1 Origin 2 Land usage2.1 Mobile batteries 2.2 Fixed battery3 Naval usage 4 Modern battery organization4.1 United States Marine Corps5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksOrigin[edit] Artillery
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Tank Gun
A tank gun is the main armament of a tank. Modern tank guns are large-caliber high-velocity guns, capable of firing kinetic energy penetrators, high explosive anti-tank rounds, and in some cases guided missiles. Anti-aircraft
Anti-aircraft
guns can also be mounted to tanks. As the tank's primary armament, they are almost always employed in a direct fire mode to defeat a variety of ground targets at all ranges, including dug-in infantry, lightly armored vehicles, and especially other heavily armored tanks. They must provide accuracy, range, penetration, and rapid fire in a package that is as compact and lightweight as possible, to allow mounting in the cramped confines of an armored gun turret. Tank
Tank
guns generally use self-contained ammunition, allowing rapid loading (or use of an autoloader)
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Battleships
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship, and a fleet of battleships was considered vital for any nation that desired to maintain command of the sea. The word battleship was coined around 1794 and is a contraction of the phrase line-of-battle ship, the dominant wooden warship during the Age of Sail.[1] The term came into formal use in the late 1880s to describe a type of ironclad warship,[2] now referred to by historians as pre-dreadnought battleships
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Ballistics
Ballistics
Ballistics
is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance. A ballistic body is a body with momentum which is free to move, subject to forces, such as the pressure of gases in a gun or a propulsive nozzle, by rifling in a barrel, by gravity, or by air drag. A ballistic missile is a missile only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight, whose trajectory is subsequently governed by the laws of classical mechanics, in contrast (fo
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Fire For Effect
Fire for effect is a military term. According to NATO doctrine:Fire which is delivered after the mean point of impact or burst is within the desired distance of the target or adjusting/ranging point. Term in a call for fire to indicate the adjustment/ranging is satisfactory and fire for effect is desired.According to United States Department of Defense:That volume of fires delivered on a target to achieve the desired effect. Also called FFE. See also final protective fire; fire mission; suppression fire.Artillery firing is often calibrated with spotting rounds and a process of adjustment of fire. Once calibrated upon the desired target or bracketed area, a call for "fire for effect" is made - requesting several batteries or the battalion to fire one or more rounds, with the goal of saturating the target area with shell fragments. In practice, first the Forward Observer (FO) establishes communication with the artillery unit. Then a spotting round is called for
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Gun Carriage
A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.Contents1 Early guns 2 Smoothbore
Smoothbore
gun carriages2.1 Naval or garrison carriages 2.2 Field carriages3 Modern gun carriages 4 State and Military funerals 5 References 6 See alsoEarly guns[edit]A medieval bombard on a wooden bed staked to the ground.The earliest guns were laid directly onto the ground, with earth being piled up under the muzzle end of the barrel to increase the elevation. As the size of guns increased, they began to be attached to heavy wooden frames or beds that were held down by stakes. These began to be replaced by wheeled carriages in the early 16th century.[1] Smoothbore
Smoothbore
gun carriages[edit] From the 16th to the mid-19th century, the main form of artillery remained the smoothbore cannon
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Muzzle (firearm)
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube, usually made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas(es) is introduced (via propellant combustion or via mechanical compression) behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end (muzzle) at a high velocity. The hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber
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