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Electromagnetic Wave
In physics , ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EM RADIATION or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons ) of the electromagnetic field , propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy . It includes radio waves , microwaves , infrared , (visible) light , ultraviolet , X- , and gamma radiation. Classically , electromagnetic radiation consists of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum . The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave . The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a lightbulb) is a sphere . The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Transverse Wave
A TRANSVERSE WAVE is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (right angled) to the direction of energy transfer (or the propagation of the wave). If a transverse wave is moving in the positive x-direction, its oscillations are in up and down directions that lie in the y–z plane. Light
Light
is an example of a transverse wave, while sound is a longitudinal wave . A ripple in a pond and a wave on a string are easily visualized as transverse waves. CONTENTS* 1 Explanation * 1.1 "Polarized" waves * 1.2 Electromagnetic waves * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links EXPLANATIONTransverse waves are waves that are oscillating perpendicularly to the direction of propagation. If you anchor one end of a ribbon or string and hold the other end in your hand, you can create transverse waves by moving your hand up and down. Notice though, that you can also launch waves by moving your hand side-to-side
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Electromagnetism
ELECTROMAGNETISM is a branch of physics involving the study of the ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields , magnetic fields , and light and is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature . The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction , the weak interaction and gravitation . Lightning is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions. The word _electromagnetism_ is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἤλεκτρον _ēlektron_, "amber ", and μαγνῆτις λίθος _magnētis lithos_, which means "Μagnesian stone", a type of iron ore
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Electricity
ELECTRICITY is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge . Although initially considered a phenomenon separate from magnetism , since the development of Maxwell\'s equations , both are recognized as part of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism . Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning , static electricity , electric heating , electric discharges and many others. The presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field . On the other hand, the movement of electric charges, which is known as electric current , produces a magnetic field . When a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb\'s law . Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge
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Magnetism
MAGNETISM is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields . Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets , producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron , nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix _ferro-_ refers to iron , because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone , a form of natural iron ore called magnetite , Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism
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Electrostatics
ELECTROSTATICS is a branch of physics that deals with study of the electric charges at rest. Since classical physics , it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing . The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or _electron_, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb\'s law . Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton , that together make up a hydrogen atom , is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them
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Electric Charge
ELECTRIC CHARGE is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field . There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel and unlike attract. An absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons , and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged. The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering , it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and, in chemistry , it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q often denotes charge. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics , and is still accurate for problems that don't require consideration of quantum effects
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Static Electricity
STATIC ELECTRICITY is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge . Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity , which flows through wires or other conductors and transmits energy . A static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate, and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current (and is therefore an electrical insulator ). The effects of static electricity are familiar to most people because people can feel, hear, and even see the spark as the excess charge is neutralized when brought close to a large electrical conductor (for example, a path to ground), or a region with an excess charge of the opposite polarity (positive or negative)
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Electric Field
An ELECTRIC FIELD is a vector field that associates to each point in space the Coulomb force that would be experienced per unit of electric charge , by an infinitesimal test charge at that point. Electric fields are created by electric charges and can be induced by time-varying magnetic fields . The electric field combines with the magnetic field to form the electromagnetic field . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Sources of electric field * 2.1 Causes and description * 2.2 Continuous vs
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Electrical Conductor
In physics and electrical engineering , a CONDUCTOR is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. Materials made of metal are common electrical conductors. Electrical current is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons, positively charged holes, and positive or negative ions in some cases. In order for current to flow, it is not necessary for one charged particle to travel from the machine producing the current to that consuming it. Instead, the charged particle simply needs to nudge its neighbor a finite amount who will nudge its neighbor and on and on until a particle is nudged into the consumer, thus powering the machine. Essentially what is occurring here is a long chain of momentum transfer between mobile charge carriers; the Drude model of conduction describes this process more rigorously
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Insulator (electricity)
An ELECTRICAL INSULATOR is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field . This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors , which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity ; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors. A perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain small numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers ) which can carry current. In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from the atoms. This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator. Some materials such as glass , paper and Teflon , which have high resistivity , are very good electrical insulators
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Triboelectric Effect
The TRIBOELECTRIC EFFECT (also known as TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING) is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material. Rubbing glass with fur, or a plastic comb through the hair, can build up triboelectricity. Most everyday static electricity is triboelectric. The polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature, strain, and other properties. The triboelectric effect is not very predictable, and only broad generalizations can be made. Amber
Amber
, for example, can acquire an electric charge by contact and separation (or friction ) with a material like wool . This property was first recorded by Thales
Thales
of Miletus . The word "electricity " is derived from William Gilbert 's initial coinage, "electra", which originates in the Greek word for amber, ēlektron
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Electrostatic Discharge
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short , or dielectric breakdown . A buildup of static electricity can be caused by tribocharging or by electrostatic induction . The ESD occurs when differently-charged objects are brought close together or when the dielectric between them breaks down, often creating a visible spark . ESD can create spectacular electric sparks (lightning , with the accompanying sound of thunder , is a large-scale ESD event), but also less dramatic forms which may be neither seen nor heard, yet still be large enough to cause damage to sensitive electronic devices. Electric sparks require a field strength above approximately 40 kV/cm in air, as notably occurs in lightning strikes. Other forms of ESD include corona discharge from sharp electrodes and brush discharge from blunt electrodes
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Electrostatic Induction
ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION, also known as "electrostatic influence" or simply "influence" in Europe and Latin America, is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges. In the presence of a charged body, an insulated conductor develops a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other end. Induction was discovered by British scientist John Canton in 1753 and Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke in 1762. Electrostatic generators , such as the Wimshurst machine , the Van de Graaff generator and the electrophorus , use this principle. Due to induction, the electrostatic potential (voltage ) is constant at any point throughout a conductor
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Coulomb's Law
COULOMB\'S LAW, or COULOMB\'S INVERSE-SQUARE LAW, is a law of physics that describes force interacting between static electrically charged particles. In its scalar form, the law is: F = k e q 1 q 2 r 2 {displaystyle F=k_{e}{frac {q_{1}q_{2}}{r^{2}}}} , where ke is Coulomb\'s constant (ke = 7009899000000000000♠8.99×109 N m2 C−2), q1 and q2 are the signed magnitudes of the charges, and the scalar r is the distance between the charges. The force of interaction between the charges is attractive if the charges have opposite signs (i.e., F is negative) and repulsive if like-signed (i.e., F is positive). The law was first published in 1784 by French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
and was essential to the development of the theory of electromagnetism . Being an inverse-square law , it is analogous to Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
's inverse-square law of universal gravitation
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Gauss' Law
In physics , GAUSS\'S LAW, also known as GAUSS\'S FLUX THEOREM, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field . The surface under consideration may be a closed one enclosing a volume such as a spherical surface. The law was first formulated by Joseph-Louis Lagrange
Joseph-Louis Lagrange
in 1773, followed by