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Electrodialysis Reversal
Electrodialysis
Electrodialysis
reversal (EDR) is an electrodialysis reversal water desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1960s.[1] An electric current migrates dissolved salt ions, including fluorides, nitrates and sulfates, through an electrodialysis stack consisting of alternating layers of cationic and anionic ion exchange membranes. Periodically, the direction of ion flow is reversed by reversing the polarity of the applied electric current.[1] See also[edit] Reversed electrodialysis
Reversed electrodialysis
(RED) Osmotic powerReferences[edit]^ a b Katz, William E. (January 1979). "The electrodialysis reversal (EDR) process". Desalination. 28 (1): 31–40. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(00)88124-2
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Water Desalination
Desalination
Desalination
is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,[1] as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.[2] Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.[3] Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Multi-stage Flash Distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
(MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers. Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
plants produce about 60% of all desalinated water in the world.[1]Contents1 Principle 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksPrinciple[edit]Schematic of a 'once-through' multi-stage flash desalinator A - Steam in B - Seawater in C - Potable water out D - Waste out E - Steam out F - Heat exchange G - Condensation
Condensation
collection H - Brine
Brine
heaterMSF Desalination Plant at Jebel Ali G Station, DubaiThe plant has a series of spaces called stages, each containing a heat exchanger and a condensate collector
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Osmotic Power
Osmotic power, salinity gradient power or blue energy is the energy available from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water. Two practical methods for this are reverse electrodialysis (RED) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). Both processes rely on osmosis with membranes. The key waste product is brackish water. This byproduct is the result of natural forces that are being harnessed: the flow of fresh water into seas that are made up of salt water. In 1954, Pattle[1] suggested that there was an untapped source of power when a river mixes with the sea, in terms of the lost osmotic pressure, however it was not until the mid ‘70s where a practical method of exploiting it using selectively permeable membranes by Loeb [2] was outlined. The method of generating power by pressure retarded osmosis was invented by Prof. Sidney Loeb in 1973 at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel.[3] The idea came to Prof
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Reversed Electrodialysis
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is the salinity gradient energy retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water.[1] A method of utilizing the energy produced by this process by means of a heat engine was invented by Prof. Sidney Loeb in 1977 at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. --United States Patent US4171409 In reverse electrodialysis a salt solution and fresh water are let through a stack of alternating cation and anion exchange membranes. The chemical potential difference between salt and fresh water generates a voltage over each membrane and the total potential of the system is the sum of the potential differences over all membranes. The process works through difference in ion concentration instead of an electric field, which has implications for the type of membrane needed.[2] In RED, as in a fuel cell, the cells are stacked
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Electrical Polarity
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity. There are two types of poles: positive (+) and negative (-). This represents the electrical potential at the ends of a circuit. A battery has a positive terminal (pole) and a negative terminal (pole).Contents1 Current Direction 2 Conventions for identification 3 AC systems 4 See alsoCurrent Direction[edit] Conventional Current flows from the positive pole (terminal) to the negative pole. Electrons flow from negative to positive. In a direct current (DC) circuit, current flows in one direction only, and one pole is always negative and the other pole is always positive
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Anionic
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Cation
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Sulfate
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2− 4. Sulfate
Sulfate
is the spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is used in British English. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid.Contents1 Structure 2 Bonding 3 Preparation 4 Properties 5 Uses and occurrence5.1 Commercial applications 5.2 Occurrence in nature6 History 7 Environmental effects7.1 Main effects on climate8 Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) 9 Other sulfur oxyanions 10 Notes 11 See also 12 ReferencesStructure[edit] The sulfate anion consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is the same as that of methane
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Nitrate
Nitrate
Nitrate
is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO− 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u. Nitrates also describe the organic functional group RONO2. These nitrate esters are a specialized class of explosives.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties and diet 3 Occurrence 4 Uses 5 Detection 6 Toxicity6.1 Poisoning 6.2 Human health effects 6.3 Marine toxicity7 Nitrate
Nitrate
overview 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a −​2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion
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Fluoride
Fluoride
Fluoride
/ˈflʊəraɪd/,[3] /ˈflɔːraɪd/[3] is an inorganic, monatomic anion of fluorine with the chemical formula F−. Fluoride is the simplest anion of fluorine. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride
Fluoride
ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are only present in trace quantities in water. Fluoride contributes a distinctive bitter taste
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Salt (chemistry)
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.[1] Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl−), or organic, such as acetate (CH 3CO− 2); and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic, such as sulfate (SO2− 4).Contents1 Kinds of salts 2 Properties2.1 Color 2.2 Taste 2.3 Odor 2.4 Solubility 2.5 Conductivity 2.6 Melting point3 Nomenclature 4 Formation 5 Strong salt 6 Weak salts 7 See also 8 ReferencesKinds of salts[edit] Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic
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Electric Current
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.[1]:2 In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).[2] The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter.[3] Electric currents cause Joule
Joule
heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within the metal
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