HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Electrodialysis Reversal
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL (EDR) is an electrodialysis reversal water desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1960s. An electric current migrates dissolved salt ions , including fluorides , nitrates and sulfates , through an electrodialysis stack consisting of alternating layers of cationic and anionic ion exchange membranes. Periodically, the direction of ion flow is reversed by reversing the polarity of the applied electric current. SEE ALSO * Reversed electrodialysis (RED) * Osmotic power
Osmotic power
REFERENCES * ^ A B Katz, William E. (January 1979). "The electrodialysis reversal (EDR) process". Desalination. 28 (1): 31–40. doi :10.1016/S0011-9164(00)88124-2 . Retrieved 2015
[...More...]

"Electrodialysis Reversal" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Fluoride
FLUORIDE /ˈflʊəraɪd/ , /ˈflɔːraɪd/ is an inorganic , monatomic anion of fluorine with the chemical formula F− . Fluoride
Fluoride
is the simplest anion of fluorine. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons . In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride
Fluoride
ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite , but are only present in trace quantities in water. Fluoride contributes a distinctive bitter taste. It contributes no color to fluoride salts
[...More...]

"Fluoride" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Nitrate
NITRATE is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO− 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u . Nitrates also describe the organic functional group RONO2 . These nitrate esters are a specialized class of explosives. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Properties and diet * 3 Occurrence * 4 Uses * 5 Detection * 6 Toxicity * 6.1 Toxicosis * 6.2 Human health effects * 6.3 Marine toxicity * 7 Nitrate
Nitrate
overview * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links STRUCTUREThe anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid , consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a − 2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion
[...More...]

"Nitrate" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Sulfate
The SULFATE or SULPHATE (see spelling differences ) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2− 4. Sulfate
Sulfate
is the spelling recommended by IUPAC , but sulphate is used in British English . Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Bonding * 3 Preparation * 4 Properties * 5 Uses and occurrence * 5.1 Commercial applications * 5.2 Occurrence in nature * 6 History * 7 Environmental effects * 7.1 Main effects on climate * 8 Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) * 9 Other sulfur oxyanions * 10 Notes * 11 See also * 12 References STRUCTUREThe sulfate anion consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is the same as that of methane
[...More...]

"Sulfate" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Ion
In the physical sciences, an ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is a particle that has a non-zero net electrical charge , such as an atom or molecule whose total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons . A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called molecular ions or polyatomic ions . In the case of physical ionization of a medium such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion
[...More...]

"Ion" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Salt (chemistry)
In chemistry , a SALT is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base . Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic , such as chloride (Cl−), or organic , such as acetate (CH 3CO− 2); and can be monatomic , such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic , such as sulfate (SO2− 4). There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are alkali salts ; those that hydrolyze to produce hydronium ions in water are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic. Zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in the same molecule , but are not considered to be salts. Examples of zwitterions include amino acids , many metabolites , peptides , and proteins
[...More...]

"Salt (chemistry)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Seawater Greenhouse
A SEAWATER GREENHOUSE is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy . The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used to humidify and cool the air, and second, it is evaporated by solar heating and distilled to produce fresh water . Finally, the remaining humidified air is expelled from the greenhouse and used to improve growing conditions for outdoor plants. The technology was introduced by British inventor Charlie Paton in the early 1990s and is being developed by his UK company Seawater Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Ltd. The more concentrated salt water may either be further evaporated for the production of salt and other elements, or discharged back to the sea. The seawater greenhouse is a response to the global water crisis and peak water
[...More...]

"Seawater Greenhouse" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Electric Current
An ELECTRIC CURRENT is a flow of electric charge . In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire . It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte , or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma ). The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere , which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter . Electric currents cause Joule heating , which creates light in incandescent light bulbs . They also create magnetic fields , which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers
[...More...]

"Electric Current" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Cation
An ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is an atom , or a molecule , in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons , giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge . An atom, or molecule, with a net positive charge is a cation . An atom, or molecule, with a net negative charge is an anion . Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called either molecular ions , or polyatomic ions
[...More...]

"Cation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Anionic
In the physical sciences, an ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is a particle having a non-zero net electrical charge , such as an atom or molecule whose total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons . A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called molecular ions or polyatomic ions . In the case of physical ionization of a medium, such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion
[...More...]

"Anionic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
[...More...]

"Special" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Electrodialysis Reversal
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL (EDR) is an electrodialysis reversal water desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1960s. An electric current migrates dissolved salt ions , including fluorides , nitrates and sulfates , through an electrodialysis stack consisting of alternating layers of cationic and anionic ion exchange membranes. Periodically, the direction of ion flow is reversed by reversing the polarity of the applied electric current. SEE ALSO * Reversed electrodialysis (RED) * Osmotic power
Osmotic power
REFERENCES * ^ A B Katz, William E. (January 1979). "The electrodialysis reversal (EDR) process". Desalination. 28 (1): 31–40. doi :10.1016/S0011-9164(00)88124-2 . Retrieved 2015
[...More...]

"Electrodialysis Reversal" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO
ISO
. An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
[...More...]

"Digital Object Identifier" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Osmotic Power
OSMOTIC POWER, SALINITY GRADIENT POWER or BLUE ENERGY is the energy available from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water . Two practical methods for this are reverse electrodialysis (RED) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). Both processes rely on osmosis with membranes . The key waste product is brackish water . This byproduct is the result of natural forces that are being harnessed: the flow of fresh water into seas that are made up of salt water. In 1954 Pattle suggested that there was an untapped source of power when a river mixes with the sea, in terms of the lost osmotic pressure, however it was not until the mid ‘70s where a practical method of exploiting it using selectively permeable membranes by Loeb was outlined. The method of generating power by pressure retarded osmosis was invented by Prof. Sidney Loeb in 1973 at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel. The idea came to Prof
[...More...]

"Osmotic Power" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Electrical Polarity
ELECTRICAL POLARITY (positive and negative) is the direction of current flow in an electrical circuit . Current flows from the positive pole (terminal) to the negative pole. Electrons flow from negative to positive. In a direct current (DC) circuit, current flows in one direction only, and one pole is always negative and the other pole is always positive. In an alternating current (AC) circuit the two poles alternate between negative and positive and the direction of the current (electron flow) reverses periodically. CONVENTIONS FOR IDENTIFICATIONIn DC circuits, the positive pole is usually marked red (or "+") and the negative pole is usually marked black (or "−"), but other color schemes are sometimes used in automotive and telecommunications systems. Polarity symbols are often used where DC is supplied via a coaxial power connector . On a car battery , the positive pole usually has a larger diameter than the negative pole
[...More...]

"Electrical Polarity" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Reversed Electrodialysis
REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS (RED) is the salinity gradient energy retrieved