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Electoral List
An ELECTORAL LIST is a grouping of candidates for election, usually in proportional election systems , but also in some plurality election systems. An electoral list can be registered by a political party or can constitute a group of independent candidates. Lists can be open , in which case electors have some influence over the ranking of the winning candidates, or closed , in which case the order of candidates is fixed at the registration of the list. Electoral lists are required for party-list proportional representation voting systems . An electoral list (not to be confused with an electoral roll ) is made according to the applying nomination rules and election rules . Depending on the type of election, a political party , a general assembly , or a board meeting, may elect or appoint a nominating committee that will add, and if required, prioritize list-candidates according to their preferences
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Political Party
A POLITICAL PARTY is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized, and in how they operate, there are often many differences, and some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, and many represent ideologies very different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. In many democracies , political parties are elected by the electorate to run a government. Many countries, such as Germany
Germany
and India
India
, have several significant political parties, and some nations have one-party systems , such as China
China
and Cuba
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Nominating Committee
A COMMITTEE (or "commission" ) is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly . Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and their type of work differ depending on the type of the organization and its needs
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Ballot Paper
A BALLOT is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting . It was originally a small ball (see blackballing ) used to record decisions made by voters. Each voter uses one ballot, and ballots are not shared. In the simplest elections, a ballot may be a simple scrap of paper on which each voter writes in the name of a candidate , but governmental elections use preprinted ballots to protect the secrecy of the votes . The voter casts his/her ballot in a box at a polling station . In British English, this is usually called a "BALLOT PAPER". The word ballot is used for an election process within an organisation (such as a trade union "holding a ballot" of its members)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Election
An ELECTION is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office . Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature , sometimes in the executive and judiciary , and for regional and local government . This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations . The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype , ancient Athens , where the Elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition , also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot
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Proportional Representation
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party , then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality , or a bare majority , of them. Proportional representation requires the use of multiple-member voting districts (also called super-districts); it is not possible using single-member districts alone. In fact, the most proportional representation is achieved when just one super-district is used. The two most widely used families of PR electoral systems are party list PR and single transferable vote (STV). Mixed member proportional representation (MMP), also known as the Additional Member System , is a hybrid Mixed Electoral System that uses party list PR as its proportional component
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Election Law
ELECTION LAW is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science . It researches "the politics of law and the law of politics". CONTENTS * 1 Issues * 2 Sources of election law * 3 Regimes in comparative law * 3.1 France * 3.2 Italy * 3.3 United States
United States
* 3.4 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ISSUESSome of the questions that are addressed by election law are: * Which people are entitled to vote in an election (e.g
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Open List
OPEN LIST describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected. This as opposed to closed list , which allows only active members, party officials, or consultants to determine the order of its candidates and gives the general voter no influence at all on the position of the candidates placed on the party list . Additionally, an open list system allows voters to select individuals rather than parties. Different systems give voter different amounts of influence. Voter's choice is usually called PREFERENCE VOTE
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Nomination Rules
NOMINATION RULES in elections regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to stand for election. The criteria to stand as a candidate depends on the individual legal system. They may include the age of a candidate , citizenship, endorsement by a political party and profession. Laws restrictions, such as competence or moral aptitude, can be used in a discriminatory manner. Restrictive and discriminatory nomination rules can impact the civil rights of candidates, political parties, and voters. In some jurisdictions a candidate or party must not only be nominated but also has to pass separate rules in order to be listed on the ballot paper . In the United States
United States
, this is called ballot access
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Closed List
CLOSED LIST describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected. If voters have at least some influence then it is called an open list . In closed list systems, each political party has pre-decided who will receive the seats allocated to that party in the elections, so that the candidates positioned highest on this list tend to always get a seat in the parliament while the candidates positioned very low on the closed list will not. However, the candidates "at the water mark" of a given party are in the position of either losing or winning their seat depending on the number of votes the party gets. "The water mark" is the number of seats a specific party can be expected to achieve
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Voting System
An ELECTORAL SYSTEM is the set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote , who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast , how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending , and other factors that can affect the outcome. Political electoral systems are defined by constitutions and electoral laws, are typically conducted by election commissions , and can use multiple types of elections for different offices
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Electoral Roll
The ELECTORAL ROLL (also called an ELECTORAL REGISTER or POLL BOOK) is a list of persons who are eligible to vote in a particular electoral district and who are registered to vote , if required in a particular jurisdiction. An electoral roll has a number of functions, especially to streamline voting on election day. Voter registration
Voter registration
is also used to combat electoral fraud by enabling authorities to verify an applicant's identity and entitlement to a vote, and to ensure a person doesn't vote multiple times. In jurisdictions where voting is compulsory, the electoral roll is used to indicate who has failed to vote. Most jurisdictions maintain permanent electoral rolls while some jurisdictions compile new electoral rolls before each election. In some jurisdictions, people to be selected for jury or other civil duties are chosen from an electoral roll
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Party-list Proportional Representation
PARTY-LIST PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament ) through allocations to an electoral list . They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems . In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania
Albania
, Argentina
Argentina
, Turkey
Turkey
, and Israel
Israel
; or for candidates whose vote total will pool to the party, as in Finland
Finland
, Brazil
Brazil
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
; or for a list of candidates, as in Hong Kong
Hong Kong

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Electoral List
An ELECTORAL LIST is a grouping of candidates for election, usually in proportional election systems , but also in some plurality election systems. An electoral list can be registered by a political party or can constitute a group of independent candidates. Lists can be