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Soviet Union

From the 1930s until its dissolution in late 1991, the way the Soviet economyFrom the 1930s until its dissolution in late 1991, the way the Soviet economy operated remained essentially unchanged. The economy was formally directed by central planning, carried out by Gosplan and organized in five-year plans. However, in practice, the plans were highly aggregated and provisional, subject to ad hoc intervention by superiors. All critical economic decisions were taken by the political leadership. Allocated resources and plan targets were usually denominated in rubles rather than in physical goods. Credit was discouraged, but widespread. The final allocation of output was achieved through relatively decentralized, unplanned contracting. Although in theory prices were legally set from above, in practice they were often negotiated, and informal horizontal links (e.g
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Russian Language
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language native to the Russians in Eastern Europe. It is an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.[22][23] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages alongside, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian. Russian was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 26 December 1991.[24] Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states
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Kyryl Studynsky
Kyrylo Studynsky (Ukrainian: Кири́ло Йо́сипович Студи́нський (4 October 1868 – 1941), was a western Ukrainian political and cultural figure from the late-19th to the mid-20th century. One of the principal figures within the Christian Social Movement in Ukraine, in 1939 Studynsky became head of the People's Assembly of Western Ukraine following the Soviet annexation of Western Ukraine, 1939–1940, and led the delegation to Moscow that formally requested the inclusion of Western Ukraine to the Soviet Union. Kyrylo Studynsky was born in Ternopil region, at the time a part of Austria–Hungary, into a prominent clerical family. His grandfather, the priest Stephan Kachala, was a historian and member of the Austrian parliament. Kyrylo Studynsky studied philosophy at the University of Lviv, and at the University of Vienna before switching to Philology at the latter institution
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Supreme Soviet
The Supreme Soviet (Russian: Верховный Совет, Verkhovny Sovet, English: literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). These soviets were modeled after the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, established in 1938, and were nearly identical.[1] Soviet-approved delegates to the Supreme Soviets were periodically elected in unopposed elections.[2] The first free or semi-free elections took place during perestroika in late 1980s
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Wilno

Vilnius (Lithuanian pronunciation: [ˈvʲɪlʲnʲʊs] (listen), see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 587,581 as of 2020.[8] The population of Vilnius's functional urban area, which stretches beyond the city limits, is estimated at 700,275 (as of 2018),[11] while according to the Vilnius territorial health insurance fund, there were 729,923 permanent inhabitants as of May 2020 in Vilnius city and Vilnius district municipalities combined.[12] Vilnius is in southeastern Lithuania and is the second-largest city in the Baltic states
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Soviet Annexation Of Western Ukraine, 1939–1940
On the basis of a secret clause of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union invaded Poland on September 17, 1939, capturing the eastern provinces of the Second Polish Republic. Lwów, present day Lviv, the capital of the Lwów Voivodeship and the principal city and cultural center of the region of Galicia, was captured and occupied by September 22, 1939 along with other provincial capitals including Tarnopol, Brześć, Stanisławów, Łuck, and Wilno to the north. The eastern provinces of interwar Poland were inhabited by an ethnically mixed population, with ethnic Poles as well as Polish Jews dominant in the cities. These lands now form the backbone of modern Western Ukraine and West Belarus.[1][2] In June 1940, the Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Romania, demanding the ceding of Northern Bukovina, a region with a large ethnic Ukrainian population
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Occupation Of The Baltic States
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic statesEstonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940.[1][2] They were then annexed into the Soviet Union as constituent republics in August 1940, though most Western powers and nations never recognised their incorporation.[3][4] On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union and within weeks occupied the Baltic territories. In July 1941, the Third Reich incorporated the Baltic territory into its Reichskommissariat Ostland
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Pinsk
Pinsk (Belarusian: Пі́нск; Russian: Пи́нск [pʲin̪s̪k]) is a city in located Brest Region of Belarus, in the Polesia region, at the confluence of the Pina River and the Pripyat River. The region was known as the Marsh of Pinsk and is southwest of Minsk. The population is 138,415.[2] The historic city has a restored city centre, with two-story buildings from the 19th century and the early 20th century
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German–Soviet Military Parade In Brest-Litovsk
The German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk (German: Deutsch-sowjetische Siegesparade in Brest-Litowsk, Russian: Совместный парад вермахта и РККА в Бресте) was an official ceremony held by the troops of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union on September 22, 1939, during the invasion of Poland in the city of Brest-Litovsk (Polish: Brześć nad Bugiem or Brześć Litewski, then in the Second Polish Republic, now Brest in Belarus). It marked the withdrawal of German troops to the demarcation line secretly agreed to in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and the handover of the city and its fortress to the Soviet Red Army. The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, signed on August 23, 1939, defined the boundary between the German and Soviet "spheres of influence"
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Polish Areas Annexed By Nazi Germany

Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration. The rest of Nazi occupied Poland was renamed as the General Government district.[1] The annexation was part of the "fourth partition of Poland" by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, outlined months before the invasion, in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.[2] Some smaller territories were incorporated directly into the existing Gaue East Prussia and Silesia, while the bulk of the land was used to create new Reichsgaue Danzig-West Prussia and Wartheland
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