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Elaine Race Riot
The ELAINE RACE RIOT, also called the ELAINE MASSACRE, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County, Arkansas
. With an estimated 100 to 237 blacks killed, along with five white men, it is considered the deadliest race riot in the state and one of the deadliest racial conflicts in all of United States history. Due to the widespread white mob attacks, in 2015 the Equal Justice Institute classified the black deaths as lynchings in their report on lynchings in the United States . Located in the Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
, the county had been developed for cotton plantations , worked by African-American
African-American
slaves. In the early 20th century the population was still overwhelmingly black: African Americans outnumbered whites in the area around Elaine by a ten-to-one ratio, and by three-to-one in the county overall
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Phillips County, Arkansas
PHILLIPS COUNTY is a county located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Arkansas
Arkansas
, in what is known as the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 21,757. The county seat is Helena-West Helena . Phillips County is Arkansas's seventh county, formed on May 1, 1820, and named for Sylvanus Phillips , the area's first-known white settler and representative to the first Territorial Legislature of the Arkansas Territory . This lowland area was developed for cotton plantations in the antebellum area and is still largely rural. The Helena-West Helena, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area
Micropolitan Statistical Area
includes all of Phillips County
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Red Summer (1919)
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine, Arkansas
, where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago
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Bisbee Riot
The BISBEE RIOT, or the BATTLE OF BREWERY GULCH, refers to a conflict during the Red Summer on July 3, 1919, between Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry and members of local police forces in Bisbee , Arizona
Arizona
. Following an incident between a military policeman and some of the Buffalo Soldiers, the situation escalated into a street battle in Bisbee's historic Brewery Gulch. At least eight people were seriously injured, and fifty soldiers were arrested, although the consequences of this skirmish were relatively minor compared to others during the summer of 1919. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Riot * 3 Aftermath * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDIn 1919, Bisbee had a population 20,000 and was home to white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans. Although a busy place, it was described by author Cameron McWhirter as a "remote... dusty frontier town," ten miles north of the Mexican border
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Longview Race Riot
The LONGVIEW RACE RIOT refers to a series of violent incidents in Longview , Texas
Texas
, between July 10 and July 12, 1919, when whites attacked black areas of town, killed one black man, and burned down several properties, including the houses of a black teacher and a doctor. It was the second of 25 race riots in 1919 in the United States during what became known as Red Summer , a period after World War I known for numerous riots occurring mostly in urban areas. The riot is notable for local and state officials taking actions to impose military authority and quell further violence. After ignoring early rumors of planned unrest, local officials appealed to the governor for forces to quell the violence. In a short time, the Texas National Guard and Texas
Texas
Rangers sent forces to the town, where the Guard organized an occupation and curfew
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Chicago Race Riot Of 1919
The CHICAGO RACE RIOT OF 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3. During the riot, thirty-eight people died (23 black and 15 white) and over five hundred were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer , so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson , looting , and murder made it the worst race riot in the history of Illinois
Illinois
. The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago
Chicago
was one of ethnic tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration , thousands of African Americans
African Americans
from the South had settled next to neighborhoods of European immigrants on Chicago's South Side , near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants
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Knoxville Riot Of 1919
The KNOXVILLE RIOT OF 1919 was a race riot that took place in Knoxville, Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
, United States, on August 30–31, 1919. The riot began when a lynch mob stormed the county jail in search of Maurice Mays, a mulatto man who had been accused of murdering a white woman. Unable to find Mays, the rioters looted the jail and fought a pitched gun battle with the residents of a predominantly black neighborhood. The Tennessee National Guard
Tennessee National Guard
, which at one point fired two machine guns indiscriminately into this neighborhood, eventually dispersed the rioters. Newspapers placed the death toll at just two, though eyewitness accounts suggest it was much higher. The Riot of 1919 was one of several violent racial incidents that occurred during the so-called Red Summer , when race riots plagued cities across the United States
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Omaha Race Riot Of 1919
The OMAHA RACE RIOT occurred in Omaha , Nebraska
Nebraska
, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the brutal lynching of Will Brown, a black worker; the death of two white men; the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith ; and a public rampage by thousands of whites who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha
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Elaine, Arkansas
ELAINE is a city in Phillips County , Arkansas
Arkansas
, United States
United States
. The population was 865 at the 2000 census . It is best known as the location of the Elaine massacre of 1919, in which an estimated 237 Black people were killed in the rural county by rampaging white mobs. This was one of the worst incidents of racial violence in American history. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Notable people * 5 Education * 6 References HISTORY See also: Elaine Race Riot In 1919, two whites tried to break up a meeting of black sharecroppers who were trying to organize a farmers' union to get better conditions of payment and accounting from white landowners of cotton plantations. After a white man was killed, hundreds of other whites poured into the area, attacking blacks
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Bryan Stevenson
BRYAN A. STEVENSON (born November 14, 1959) is an American lawyer, social justice activist, founder and executive director of the Equal Justice Initiative , and a clinical professor at New York University School of Law . Based in Montgomery, Alabama
Montgomery, Alabama
, Stevenson has challenged bias against the poor and minorities in the criminal justice system, especially children. He has helped achieve court decisions that prohibit sentencing children under 18 to death, or to life imprisonment without parole. Stevenson has assisted in cases that have saved dozens of prisoners from the death penalty, advocated for poor people, and developed community-based reform litigation aimed at improving the administration of criminal justice. He is working to establish The Memorial to Peace and Justice in Montgomery, which will document each of the nearly 4,000 lynchings of black people that took place in the twelve states of the South from 1877 to 1950
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Lynchings In The United States
LYNCHING is the practice of murder by extrajudicial action . Lynchings
Lynchings
in the United States
United States
rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined after 1930 but were recorded into the 1960s. Lynchings
Lynchings
most frequently targeted African-American men and women in the South , with lynchings also appearing in the North during the Great Migration of blacks into Northern areas. The political message—the promotion of white supremacy and black powerlessness—was an important element of the ritual, with lynchings photographed and published as postcards which were popular souvenirs in the U.S. As well as being hanged, victims were sometimes burned alive and tortured, with body parts removed and kept as souvenirs. Lynchings
Lynchings
were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892
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Arkansas Delta
The ARKANSAS DELTA is one of the six natural regions of the state of Arkansas
Arkansas
. Willard B. Gatewood Jr., author of The Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta: Land of Paradox, says that rich cotton lands of the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta make that area "The Deepest of the Deep South." The region runs along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from Eudora north to Blytheville and as far west as Little Rock . It is part of the Mississippi embayment
Mississippi embayment
, itself part of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Alluvial Plain . The flat plain is bisected by Crowley\'s Ridge , a narrow band of rolling hills rising 250 to 500 feet (76 to 152 m) feet above the flat delta plains. Several towns and cities have been developed along Crowley's Ridge, including Jonesboro
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Plantations In The American South
PLANTATIONS were an important aspect of the history of the American South , particularly the antebellum (pre- American Civil War ) era. The mild subtropical climate, plentiful rainfall, and fertile soils of the American Southeast allowed large plantations to flourish; where large numbers of workers, usually Africans held captive for slave labor , were required for agricultural production. CONTENTS* 1 Personnel * 1.1 Planter (old plantation owner) * 1.2 Overseer * 1.3 Slaves * 2 Plantation crops * 3 Plantation architecture and landscape * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 6.1 Primary sources PERSONNELPLANTER (OLD PLANTATION OWNER)An individual who owned a plantation was known as a planter. Historians of the antebellum South have generally defined "planter" most precisely as a person owning property (real estate) and 20 or more slaves
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Sharecroppers
SHARECROPPING is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system. Some are governed by tradition, and others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage , the Spanish mediero, or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Advantages * 1.2 Disadvantages * 2 Regions * 2.1 Africa
Africa
* 2.2 United States
United States
* 3 Sharecropping agreements * 4 Farmers\' cooperatives * 5 Economic theories of share tenancy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading OVERVIEW Sharecropping has benefits and costs for both the owners and the tenant
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Progressive Farmers And Household Union Of America
The PROGRESSIVE FARMERS AND HOUSEHOLD UNION OF AMERICA was a union of African-American
African-American
tenant farmers and sharecroppers , organized by Robert L. Hill . A meeting of this union near Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine, Arkansas
, was disrupted on the evening of September 30, 1919. The fatal shooting of a white man sparked retaliation by whites; hundreds poured into the area, attacking blacks on sight and resulting in the Elaine Race Riot , believed to be the deadliest in American history. BACKGROUNDThe Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America was formed by Robert L. Hill of Winchester, Arkansas , a black tenant farmer. He claimed chapters in 15 to 20 counties, and the union had several lodges in the Elaine area
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Posse Comitatus
POSSE COMITATUS is the common-law or statute law authority of a county sheriff , or other law officer, to conscript any able-bodied man to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon , similar to the concept of the "hue and cry ." Originally found in English common law, it is generally obsolete; however, it survives in the United States
United States
, where it is the law enforcement equivalent of summoning the militia for military purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 United Kingdom * 2.1 English Civil War * 2.2 In law * 3 United States
United States
* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe term derives from the Latin
Latin
posse comitātūs, power or force of the county, in English use from the late 16th century, shortened to posse from the mid 17th century
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