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Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen[a] (German: [ˈʔaɪnzatsˌɡʁʊpn̩], "task forces"[1] or "deployment groups")[2] were Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II
World War II
(1939–45). The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia and cultural elite of Poland, and had an integral role in the implementation of the so-called Final solution to the Jewish question (Die Endlösung der Judenfrage) in territories conquered by Nazi Germany
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Sudetenland
The Sudetenland
Sudetenland
(/suːˈdeɪtənlænd/ ( listen); German: [zuˈdeːtn̩ˌlant]; Czech and Slovak: Sudety; Polish: Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
from the time of the Austrian Empire. The word "Sudetenland" did not come into existence until the early 20th century and did not come to prominence until after the First World War, when the German-dominated Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia
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Munich Agreement
The Munich
Munich
Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined. The agreement was signed in the early hours of 30 September 1938 (but dated 29 September) after being negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe, excluding the Soviet Union. Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland in the face of demands made by Adolf Hitler. The agreement was signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Italy
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Kórnik
Kórnik
Kórnik
[ˈkurɲik] (German: Kurnik, 1939-45 Burgstadt) is a town with about 6,800 inhabitants (2006), located in western Poland, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-east of the city of Poznań
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Intelligentsia
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/)[1] (Latin: intelligentia, Polish: inteligencja, Russian: интеллигенция, tr. intelligensiya, IPA: [ɪntʲɪlʲɪˈɡʲentsɨjə]) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.[2] As a status class, the intelligentsia includes artists, teachers, and academics, writers, journalists, and the literary hommes de lettres
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Partisan (military)
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity
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Task Force
A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. Originally introduced by the United States Navy,[citation needed] the term has now caught on for general usage and is a standard part of NATO
NATO
terminology
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Raul Hilberg
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian. He was widely considered to be the world's preeminent[1][2][3] scholar of the Holocaust, and his three-volume, 1,273-page magnum opus, The Destruction of the European Jews, is regarded as a seminal study of the Nazi Final Solution.Contents1 Life and career1.1 Academic career 1.2 Personal life2 The Destruction of the European Jews2.1 Struggle for publication 2.2 Approach and structure of book 2.3 Critical reception3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife and career[edit] Hilberg was born in Vienna, Austria, to a Jewish family from Poland and Romania. Hilberg was very much a loner, pursuing solitary hobbies such as geography, music and train spotting.[4] Though his parents attended synagogue on occasion, he personally found the irrationality of religion repellent and developed an allergy to it
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Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
([ˈoːbɐɡʀʊpn̩fyːʀɐ], "senior group leader") was a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA), and adopted by the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) one year later. Until April 1942, it was the highest commissioned SS rank, inferior only to Reichsführer-SS ( Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
or RFSS, which was the internal SS-abbreviation for Himmler)[1] Translated as "senior group leader",[2] the rank of Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
was senior to Gruppenführer.[3] A similarly named rank of Untergruppenführer existed in the SA from 1929 to 1930 and as a title until 1933
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Crimes Against Humanity
Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity
are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity
have since been prosecuted by other international courts (for example, the International Court of Justice
Justice
and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court) as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law
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War Crimes
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.[1] Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, perfidy, rape, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations.[2] The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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Freikorps
Freikorps
Freikorps
(pronounced [ˈfʀaɪ̯ˌkoːɐ̯], "Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, the members of which effectively fought as mercenaries, regardless of their own nationality. In German-speaking countries, the first so-called Freikorps
Freikorps
("free regiments", German: Freie Regimenter) were formed in the 18th century from native volunteers, enemy renegades and deserters, and criminals. These sometimes exotically equipped units served as infantry and cavalry (or more rarely as artillery), sometimes in just company strength, sometimes in formations up to several thousand strong; there were also various mixed formations or legions. The Prussian von Kleist Freikorps included infantry, jäger, dragoons and hussars
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Occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
Europe
refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regimes.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Occupied countries2.1 Governments in exile2.1.1 Allied governments in exile 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksBackground[edit] Several German occupied countries entered World War II
World War II
as Allies of the United Kingdom[2] or the Soviet Union.[3] Some were forced to surrender before outbreak of the war such as Czechoslovakia;[4] others like Poland
Poland
(invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied
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Anschluss
Anschluss
Anschluss
(German: [ˈʔanʃlʊs] ( listen) 'joining') refers to the annexation of Austria
Austria
into
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Official languages German[a][b]
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