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Einsatzgruppen
EINSATZGRUPPEN (German: , "task forces " "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II
World War II
(1939–45). The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia , including members of the priesthood , and they played an integral role in the implementation of the so-called Final solution to the Jewish question (Die Endlösung der Judenfrage) in territories conquered by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

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Nazi Persecution Of The Catholic Church In Poland
The Catholic Church in Poland was brutally suppressed by the Nazis during the German Occupation of Poland (1939-1945). Repression of the Church was at its most severe in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany , where churches were systematically closed and most priests were either killed, imprisoned, or deported. From across Poland, thousands of priests died in prisons and concentration camps; thousands of churches and monasteries were confiscated, closed or destroyed; and priceless works of religious art and sacred objects were lost forever. Church leaders were targeted as part of an overall effort to destroy Polish culture. At least 1811 Polish clergy died in Nazi concentration camps . An estimated 3000 clergy were killed in all. Hitler's plans for the Germanization of the East saw no place for the Christian Churches
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Intelligentsia
The INTELLIGENTSIA (Latin : intellegentia, Polish : inteligencja, Russian : интеллигенция; IPA: ) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society. As a status class, the intelligentsia includes artists , teachers , and academics , writers , journalists , and the literary hommes de lettres. Historically, the political role of the intelligentsia (the production of culture and ideology) varies between being either a progressive influence or a regressive influence upon the development of their societies
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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War Crimes
A WAR CRIME is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the law of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture , destroying civilian property, taking hostages , perfidy , rape , using child soldiers , pillaging , declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality , such as strategic bombing of civilian populations. The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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Crimes Against Humanity
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials . Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts – such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court, as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative
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German-occupied Europe
GERMAN–OCCUPIED EUROPE or NAZI EUROPE refers to the sovereign countries of Europe
Europe
which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Occupied countries * 2.1 Governments in exile * 2.1.1 Allied governments in exile * 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile * 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links BACKGROUND This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Raul Hilberg
RAUL HILBERG (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian -born Jewish-American political scientist and historian . He was widely considered to be the world's preeminent scholar of the Holocaust
Holocaust
, and his three-volume, 1,273-page magnum opus , The Destruction of the European Jews
Jews
, is regarded as a seminal study of the Nazi Final Solution . CONTENTS* 1 Life and career * 1.1 Academic career * 1.2 Personal life * 2 The Destruction of the European Jews * 2.1 Struggle for publication * 2.2 Approach and structure of book * 2.3 Critical reception * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFE AND CAREERHilberg was born in Vienna
Vienna
, Austria , to a Jewish family from Poland and Romania . Hilberg was very much a loner, pursuing solitary hobbies such as geography, music and train spotting
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek , Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
, Russian , and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Partisan (military)
A PARTISAN is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity. The term can apply to the field element of resistance movements , examples of which are the civilians who opposed Nazi German , Ustaše
Ustaše
and Fascist Italian rule in several countries during World War II
World War II
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ukrainian Partisans * 3 Soviet Partisans * 4 Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
* 5 List of notable partisan movements and battles * 6 See also * 7 References HISTORYThe French term "partisan", derived from the Latin, first appeared in the 17th century to describe the leader of a war-party
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Political Commissar
The POLITICAL COMMISSAR (also POLITRUK from Russian : политрук from политический руководитель, "political officer") is the supervisory political officer responsible for the political education (ideology ) and organization, and committed to the civilian control of the military . Historically, the commissaire politique (political commissary) first appeared in the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1789–99), guarding it against anti-Revolutionary thought and action. CONTENTS * 1 Red Army
Red Army
* 2 Chinese military * 3 German military * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links RED ARMY Heroic image of a Soviet
Soviet
political commissar of the 220th Infantry Regiment calling soldiers to an assault, Eastern Front , Ukraine, 12 July 1942
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Task Force
A TASK FORCE (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. Originally introduced by the United States Navy , the term has now caught on for general usage and is a standard part of NATO
NATO
terminology. Many non-military organizations now create "task forces" or task groups for temporary activities that might have once been performed by ad hoc committees
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Anschluss
ANSCHLUSS (German: ( listen )), "joining", is the term used to describe the annexation of Austria
Austria
into Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
on 12 March 1938. German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996 , was ANSCHLUß and it was also known as the ANSCHLUSS ÖSTERREICHS ( pronunciation (help ·info ), German : Austrian Annexation)
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Kórnik
KóRNIK (German : Kurnik, 1939-45 Burgstadt) is a town with about 6,800 inhabitants (2006), located in western Poland
Poland
, approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-east of the city of Poznań . It is one of the major tourist attractions of the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region because of the historical castle and arboretum, which the oldest and richest collection of trees and shrubs in Poland. Until 1961 there were two separate towns, Kórnik
Kórnik
and Bnin , both founded in the Middle Ages (Bnin gained town rights in 1395, and Kórnik
Kórnik
in 1426), situated just 1 kilometre apart. Bnin lost its town rights in 1934, and in 1961 it became part of Kórnik. The enlarged town also includes the former settlement of Prowent, birthplace of the poet Wisława Szymborska
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Occupied Europe
GERMAN–OCCUPIED EUROPE or NAZI EUROPE refers to the sovereign countries of Europe
Europe
which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Occupied countries * 2.1 Governments in exile * 2.1.1 Allied governments in exile * 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile * 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links BACKGROUND This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Munich Agreement
The MUNICH AGREEMENT was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation " Sudetenland " was coined. The agreement was signed in the early hours of 30 September 1938 (but dated 29 September) after being negotiated at a conference held in Munich
Munich
, Germany, among the major powers of Europe, excluding the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland in the face of ethnic demands made by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

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