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Eight-foot Pitch
An organ pipe, or a harpsichord string, designated as eight-foot pitch is sounded at standard, ordinary pitch.[1] For example, the A above middle C in eight-foot pitch would be sounded at 440 Hz (or at some similar value, depending on how concert pitch was set at the time and place the organ or harpsichord was made).Contents1 Similar terms 2 Choice of length 3 See also 4 ReferencesSimilar terms[edit] Eight-foot pitch may be contrasted with four-foot pitch (one octave above the standard), two-foot pitch (two octaves above the standard), and sixteen-foot pitch (one octave below the standard).[2] The latter three pitches were often sounded (by extra pipes or strings) along with an eight-foot pitch pipe or string, as a way of enriching the tonal quality
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Concert Pitch
Concert pitch
Concert pitch
is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance. Concert pitch
Concert pitch
may vary from ensemble to ensemble, and has varied widely over musical history. In the literature this is also called international standard pitch. The most common modern tuning standard uses 440 Hz for A above middle C as a reference note, with other notes being set relative to it. The term "concert pitch" is also used to distinguish between the "written" (or "nominal"), and "sounding" (or "real") notes of a transposing instrument – concert pitch here refers to the pitch on a non-transposing instrument.[not verified in body] Music for transposing instruments is transposed into different keys[not verified in body] from that of non-transposing instruments—for example, playing a written C on a B♭ clarinet or trumpet produces a non-transposing instrument's B♭
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Fundamental Frequency
The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. In music, the fundamental is the musical pitch of a note that is perceived as the lowest partial present. In terms of a superposition of sinusoids (e.g. Fourier series), the fundamental frequency is the lowest frequency sinusoidal in the sum. In some contexts, the fundamental is usually abbreviated as f0 (or FF), indicating the lowest frequency counting from zero.[1][2][3] In other contexts, it is more common to abbreviate it as f1, the first harmonic.[4][5][6][7][8] (The second harmonic is then f2 = 2⋅f1, etc
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Hertz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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A440 (pitch Standard)
A440 or A4 (also known as the Stuttgart pitch), which has a frequency of 440 Hz, is the musical note of A above middle C and serves as a general tuning standard for musical pitch. The International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
classifies it as ISO 16. Prior to the standardization on 440 Hz, other frequencies were standardized upon
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Acoustic Resonance
Acoustic resonance
Acoustic resonance
is a phenomenon where acoustic systems amplify sound waves whose frequency matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration (its resonance frequencies). The term "acoustic resonance" is sometimes used to narrow mechanical resonance to the frequency range of human hearing, but since acoustics is defined in general terms concerning vibrational waves in matter,[1] acoustic resonance can occur at frequencies outside the range of human hearing. An acoustically resonant object usually has more than one resonance frequency, especially at harmonics of the strongest resonance. It will easily vibrate at those frequencies, and vibrate less strongly at other frequencies
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Frank Hubbard
Frank Twombly Hubbard (May 15, 1920 – February 25, 1976) was an American harpsichord maker, a pioneer in the revival of historical methods of harpsichord building.Contents1 Student days 2 Historical harpsichords 3 Hubbard's thoughts on the harpsichord 4 Books 5 See also 6 Sources 7 External linksStudent days[edit] Born in New York, Hubbard studied English literature
English literature
at Harvard, graduating with AB, 1942 and AM, 1947. One of his friends was William Dowd, who had an interest in early instruments, and together they constructed a clavichord. This connection, with his interest as an amateur violinist in violin making and the location of his library reading stall near the stacks holding books on musical instruments, led to Hubbard's interest in the historic harpsichord. While pursuing graduate study at Harvard, Hubbard and Dowd both decided to leave to pursue instrument-making
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Expression Pedal
An expression pedal is an important control found on many musical instruments including organs, electronic keyboards and pedal steel guitar. The musician uses the pedal to control different aspects of the sound, commonly volume. Separate expression pedals can often be added to a guitar amplifier or effects unit and used to control many different aspects of the tone. Because the source of power with a pipe organ and electronic organs is not generated by the organist, the volume of these instruments has no relationship with how hard its keys or pedals are struck; i.e., the organ produces the same volume whether the key or pedal is depressed gently or firmly. Moreover, the tone will remain constant in pitch, volume, and timbre until the key or pedal is lifted, at which point the sound stops
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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List Of Pipe Organ Stops
For audio examples, please see the article on organ stops. An organ stop can mean one of three things:the control on an organ console that selects a particular sound the row of organ pipes, used to create a particular sound, more appropriately known as a rank the sound itselfOrgan stops are sorted into four major types: principal, string, reed, and flute. This is a sortable list of names that may be found associated with electronic and pipe organ stops. Countless stops have been designed over the centuries, and individual organs may have stops, or names of stops, used nowhere else. This non-comprehensive list deals mainly with names of stops found on numerous Baroque, classical and romantic organs
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Ophicleide (organ Stop)
Ophicleide
Ophicleide
(/ˈɒfɪklaɪd/ OFF-i-klyde) and Contra Ophicleide
Ophicleide
are powerful pipe organ reed pipes used as organ stops. The name comes from the early brass instrument, the ophicleide, forerunner of the euphonium. The Ophicleide
Ophicleide
is generally at 16′ pitch, and the Contra Ophicleide at 32′. While they can be 8′ or 16′ reeds in a manual division, they are most commonly found in the pedal division of the organ. Voiced to develop both maximum fundamental tone (as in the Bombarde) and overtone series (as in the Posaune), if the classic voicing technique and use of terminology are followed, the Ophicleide
Ophicleide
and Contra Ophicleide
Ophicleide
are among the most powerful and loudest organ stops. Generally the only types of stop more powerful are the various forms of Trompette en chamade
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Mixture (music)
A mixture is an organ stop, usually of principal tone quality, that contains multiple ranks of pipes. It is designed to be drawn with a combination of stops that forms a complete chorus (for example, principals of 8′, 4′, and 2′ pitches). The mixture sounds the upper harmonics of each note of the keyboard. The individual pitches in the mixture are not perceived by the listener; rather, they reinforce the fundamental pitches of the chorus, adding volume and brilliance to the sound. Historically, the mixture descends from the medieval Blockwerk
Blockwerk
concept, an organ in which there were no stops and all the ranks sounded simultaneously.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Variables affecting tone color 3 Mixture breaks 4 External linksNomenclature[edit] Mixture stops are typically labeled with the number of ranks of pipes that they have, i.e. how many pipes sound when a single key is pressed
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Pipe Organ
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre, pitch, and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards (called manuals) played by the hands, and a pedalboard played by the feet; each keyboard has its own group of stops. The keyboard(s), pedalboard, and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate immediately after a key is depressed
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Gedackt
Gedackt
Gedackt
(also spelled gedeckt) is the name of a family of stops in pipe organ building. They are one of the most common types of organ flue pipe. The name stems from the Middle High German
Middle High German
word gedact, meaning "capped" or "covered".Contents1 History 2 Construction 3 Sound 4 External linksHistory[edit] The concept of the stopped flute pipe (of which gedackt is a prime example) is almost as old as organ construction. As early as 1600, in Germanic organs, stopped flutes were common additions to the specification. Besides giving a distinct flute-like tone (in contrast to the more open and expressive tone of the diapason, the organ's basic voice) the stopped flutes offer a perfect ensemble stop for making combinations. Stopped flutes like the gedackt are extremely versatile in an organ specification
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Cornet (organ Stop)
A Cornet, or Jeu de Tierce, is a compound organ stop, containing multiple ranks of pipes. The individual ranks are most commonly of principal or flute tone quality. In combination, the ranks create a bright, piquant tone thought by some listeners to resemble the Renaissance brass instrument, the cornett. The Cornet is primarily used as a solo voice and the ranks of the Cornet follow the harmonic series; 8', 4', 2 2/3', 2', 1 3/5'. The 8' rank is stopped while the other ranks are open. The Cornet may contain from two ranks and up, though three, four, and especially five ranks are the most commonly found. It is the unique reedy quality created by the tierce rank (1-3/5'), perhaps in combination with the nazard (2-2/3'), that gives the cornet its distinctive sound
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