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Eight-foot Pitch
An organ pipe , or a harpsichord string, designated as EIGHT-FOOT PITCH is sounded at standard, ordinary pitch. For example, the A above middle C in eight-foot pitch would be sounded at 440 Hz (or at some similar value, depending on how concert pitch was set at the time and place the organ or harpsichord was made). CONTENTS * 1 Similar terms * 2 Choice of length * 3 See also * 4 References SIMILAR TERMS Eight-foot pitch may be contrasted with FOUR-FOOT PITCH (one octave above the standard), TWO-FOOT PITCH (two octaves above the standard), and SIXTEEN-FOOT PITCH (one octave below the standard). The latter three pitches were often sounded (by extra pipes or strings) along with an eight-foot pitch pipe or string, as a way of enriching the tonal quality. The numbers just mentioned largely exhaust the possibilities for harpsichords; in organs a far greater variety is possible; see Organ stop
Organ stop

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Tubular-pneumatic Action
"TUBULAR-PNEUMATIC ACTION" refers to an apparatus used in many pipe organs built during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The term "tubular" refers to the extensive use of lead tubing to connect the organ\'s console to the valves that control the delivery of "wind" (air under pressure) to the organ\'s pipes . Many such organs are extant 100 or more years after their construction. Lead tubing of a 1910 Möller tubular-pneumatic pipe organ. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Invention * 3 Operation * 4 Advantages and disadvantages * 5 Decline of usage * 6 Notes * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONIn any organ, each pipe has a valve located at its foot which responds to the organist's commands from the console's keyboard , pedalboard and stop controls. These valves are contained in windchests upon which the organ's pipework is set. Any type of apparatus that connects an organ's console with its windchest is referred to as its "action"
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Tracker Action
TRACKER ACTION is a term used in reference to pipe organs and steam calliopes to indicate a mechanical linkage between keys or pedals pressed by the organist and the valve that allows air to flow into pipe(s) of the corresponding note. This is in contrast to "direct electric action " and "electro-pneumatic action ", which connect the key to the valve through an electrical link or an electrically assisted pneumatic system respectively, or "tubular-pneumatic action " which utilizes a change of pressure within lead tubing which connects the key to the valve pneumatic. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient history * 1.2 Baroque and Classical * 1.3 Romantic * 1.4 Contemporary * 2 Components of the action * 3 Regulation * 4 Kinds of action * 5 Advantages and disadvantages of tracker action * 5.1 Advantages * 5.2 Disadvantages HISTORYANCIENT HISTORYOrgans trace their history as far back as at least the 3rd Century B.C
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Cornet (organ Stop)
A CORNET, or Jeu de Tierce, is a compound organ stop , containing multiple ranks of pipes . The individual ranks are most commonly of principal or flute tone quality. In combination, the ranks create a bright, piquant tone thought by some listeners to resemble the Renaissance brass instrument, the cornett . The Cornet is primarily used as a solo voice and the ranks of the Cornet follow the harmonic series; 8', 4', 2 2/3', 2', 1 3/5'. The 8' rank is stopped while the other ranks are open. The Cornet may contain from two ranks and up, though three, four, and especially five ranks are the most commonly found. It is the unique reedy quality created by the tierce rank (1-3/5'), perhaps in combination with the nazard (2-2/3'), that gives the cornet its distinctive sound
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Gedackt
GEDACKT (also spelled GEDECKT) is the name of a family of stops in pipe organ building. They are one of the most common types of organ flue pipe . The name stems from the Middle High German word gedact, meaning "capped" or "covered". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Construction * 3 Sound * 4 External links HISTORYThe concept of the stopped flute pipe (of which gedackt is a prime example) is almost as old as organ construction. As early as 1600, in Germanic organs, stopped flutes were common additions to the specification. Besides giving a distinct flute-like tone (in contrast to the more open and expressive tone of the diapason, the organ's basic voice) the stopped flutes offer a perfect ensemble stop for making combinations. Stopped flutes like the gedackt are extremely versatile in an organ specification
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List Of Pipe Organ Stops
For audio examples, please see the article on organ stops . An ORGAN STOP can mean one of three things: * the control on an organ console that selects a particular sound * the row of organ pipes , used to create a particular sound, more appropriately known as a rank * the sound itselfOrgan stops are sorted into four major types: principal, string, reed, and flute. This is a sortable list of names that may be found associated with electronic and pipe organ stops. Countless stops have been designed over the centuries, and individual organs may have stops, or names of stops, used nowhere else. This non-comprehensive list deals mainly with names of stops found on numerous Baroque , classical and romantic organs
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Stop Action Magnet
The STOP ACTION MAGNET, usually abbreviated to SAM, is an electromagnetic device used for the control of pipe organs and virtual pipe organs, and forms part of the organ's combination action . On a classical organ the device may be referred to as a DRAWSTOP SOLENOID. The SAM can be considered an electrical relay , the difference being that the SAM also has a drawknob or a tab, which enables it to be operated manually as well as electrically. A SAM will have an armature which is operated by an electrically induced magnetic field and dependent on whether the SAM is being used with a drawknob or a tilting tablet on a classically voiced organ or with a flat tab on a theatre organ , the armature will move in either a linear fashion or with semi-circular movement, in a small defined arc. A drawknob or tab is attached to the armature to facilitate hand operation
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Electro-pneumatic Action
The ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC ACTION is a control system for pipe organs , whereby air pressure , controlled by an electric current and operated by the keys of an organ console , opens and closes valves within wind chests, allowing the pipes to speak. This system also allows the console to be physically detached from the organ itself. The only connection was via an electrical cable from the console to the relay, with some early organ consoles utilizing a separate wind supply to operate combination pistons. CONTENTS * 1 Invention * 2 Operation * 3 Advantages and disadvantages * 4 Modern methods * 5 References * 6 Further reading INVENTIONAlthough early experiments with Barker lever, tubular-pneumatic and electro-pneumatic actions date as far back as the 1850s, credit for a feasible design is generally given to the English organist and inventor , Robert Hope-Jones
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Tibia (organ Pipe)
A TIBIA is a sort of organ pipe that is most characteristic of a theatre organ . Tibia pipes are generally made of wood, stopped, from 16' (Occasionally 32') with the top octave pipes (above 1/2', or 6" made of metal, stopped, and pipes from 1/4', 3" made of metal and open. The mouth is cut very high, and the pipes have little harmonic development - the sound approaches that of a sine wave . There is usually a tremulant on the wind for Tibia pipes - the increase and decrease of wind pressure gives "life" to the sound
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Tibia Clausa
A TIBIA CLAUSA is a type of pipe organ pipe. It is a large-scale, stopped wood flute pipe, usually with a leathered lip. The rank was invented by Robert Hope-Jones . Tibia Clausas provides the basic foundation tone of the organ with few overtones or harmonics. The Tibia Clausa is arguably the most important rank of pipes in a theatre pipe organ , with some organs having as many as 5. The stop shares similarities with the Bourdon and the Gedackt
Gedackt
found in some church pipe organs . In the 18th and 19th centuries, Tibia Clausa was sometimes used as an alternate name for Doppelflöte . Most tibias are made from wood, as by Wurlitzer etc., although examples of metal tibias may be found made by the John Compton Organ Company . The Tibia Clausa, or Tibia, is generally found at 16′, 8′, 4′ and 2′ pitches as a unified rank
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Bombarde (organ Stop)
The modern BOMBARDE is a powerful chorus reed, most often found in the pedals at 16' and 32' pitch (where it may be called Contra Bombarde or Contrebombarde), or on the manuals at 16'. It is found most often in French organs , along with the French Trompette . It is named after a medieval/renaissance instrument known as the Bombard, which was a term sometimes applied to the larger members of the shawm family. The Bombarde can be described as the basic 16' reed in France, and has a strong fundamental tone with a relatively short train of upper harmonics in contrast with the Posaune, which has a weaker fundamental, but a long train of higher partials
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Bourdon (organ Pipe)
BOURDON, BORDUN, or BORDONE normally denotes a stopped flute /flue type of pipe in an organ characterized by a dark tone, strong in fundamental, with a quint transient but relatively little overtone development. Its half-length construction make it especially well suited to low pitches, economical as well, and the name is derived from the French word for 'bumblebee ' or 'buzz'. DESCRIPTIONThis stop is most commonly found in the manuals and the pedal at 16′ pitch . In lower registers it provides foundation but does not provide much pitch definition. It is also found in the pedal division at 32′ pitch, where its roll of sound can actually shake the building it is installed in. When installed in the pedal division, it is often known as Subbass or Soubasse (Fr.). The Bourdon is also frequently found at 8′, especially in French organs, and is equivalent to the German Gedackt and English Stopped Diapason , which give a similar sound
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Mixture (music)
A MIXTURE is an organ stop , usually of principal tone quality, that contains multiple ranks of pipes . It is designed to be drawn with a combination of stops that forms a complete chorus (for example, principals of 8′ , 4′, and 2′ pitches). The mixture sounds the upper harmonics of each note of the keyboard. The individual pitches in the mixture are not perceived by the listener; rather, they reinforce the fundamental pitches of the chorus, adding volume and brilliance to the sound. Historically, the mixture descends from the medieval Blockwerk concept, an organ in which there were no stops and all the ranks sounded simultaneously. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Variables affecting tone color * 3 Mixture breaks * 4 External links NOMENCLATUREMixture stops are typically labeled with the number of ranks of pipes that they have, i.e. how many pipes sound when a single key is pressed
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Ophicleide (organ Stop)
OPHICLEIDE (/ˈɒfəklˌɑːɪd/ OF-ə-klyed ) and CONTRA OPHICLEIDE are powerful pipe organ reed pipes used as organ stops . The name comes from the early brass instrument, the ophicleide , forerunner of the euphonium . The Ophicleide
Ophicleide
is generally at 16′ pitch , and the Contra Ophicleide
Ophicleide
at 32′. While they can be 8′ or 16′ reeds in a manual division, they are most commonly found in the pedal division of the organ. Voiced to develop both maximum fundamental tone (as in the Bombarde) and overtone series (as in the Posaune
Posaune
), if the classic voicing technique and use of terminology are followed, the Ophicleide and Contra Ophicleide
Ophicleide
are among the most powerful and loudest organ stops. Generally the only types of stop more powerful are the various forms of Trompette en chamade
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Organ Crawl
An ORGAN CRAWL is a tour of several pipe organs at different locations in an area, usually taken by a group of enthusiasts. It may include short concerts or opportunities to play the organs at each location, commentary on them from their organists or other experts, and so on. REFERENCES * ^ Johnson, Melinda (27 April 2012). "Organ Crawl to visit four historic churches in downtown Syracuse and feature performances on churches\' organs". Syracuse Post-Standard. Retrieved 23 January 2013. FURTHER READING * "PIPE-DREAMS". Retrieved 3 January 2016. (subscription required) * Shelly Birkelo. "MacDowell Music Club pumped up for Organ Crawl". Retrieved 3 January 2016. * "Passion for Pipes: Robert Carsner\'s love of music — and pipe organs — led to the Organ Crawl". Retrieved 3 January 2016. * Meg Barone (17 February 2015). "\'Organ Crawl\' demystifies pipe dreams in Fairfield sanctuaries". Fairfield Citizen. Retrieved 3 January 2016. * "Bridgehampton Organ Crawl"
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Barrel Organ
A BARREL ORGAN (or ROLLER ORGAN) is a mechanical musical instrument consisting of bellows and one or more ranks of pipes housed in a case, usually of wood, and often highly decorated. The basic principle is the same as a traditional pipe organ , but rather than being played by an organist, the barrel organ is activated either by a person turning a crank, or by clockwork driven by weights or springs. The pieces of music are encoded onto wooden barrels (or cylinders), which are analogous to the keyboard of the traditional pipe organ. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Barrel * 3 Operation * 4 Usage * 5 Combined barrel and manually played instruments * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links TERMINOLOGYThere are many names for the barrel organ, such as HAND ORGAN, CYLINDER ORGAN, BOX ORGAN (though that can also mean a positive organ ), street organ , GRINDER ORGAN, and LOW COUNTRIES ORGAN
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