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Eight Hour Day
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses. It was started by James Deb[citation needed] and had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life. The use of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 to 16 hours, and the work week was typically six days a week.[1][2] Robert Owen
Robert Owen
had raised the demand for a ten-hour day in 1810, and instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark
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Labour Day
Labour Day
Labour Day
( Labor Day
Labor Day
in the United States) is an annual holiday to celebrate the achievements of workers. Labour Day
Labour Day
has its origins in the labour union movement, specifically the eight-hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, and eight hours for rest. For most countries, Labour Day
Labour Day
is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May
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Labour Law
Labour law
Labour law
(also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work. Employment
Employment
standards are social norms (in some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work
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Australian Labor Party
The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten
Bill Shorten
has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013. The party is a federal party with branches in each state and territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and in both the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
and Northern Territory. The party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state (and sometimes local) levels
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Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. It has been described as a broad church, bringing together an alliance of social democratic, democratic socialist and trade unionist outlooks.[9] The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights. Labour is a full member of the Party of European Socialists
Party of European Socialists
and Progressive Alliance, and holds observer status in the Socialist
Socialist
International. As of 2017, the party is considered the "largest party in Western Europe" in terms of party membership, with more than half-a-million members.[10] The Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century
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Labour Party (Netherlands)
The Labour Party (Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid [pɑr'tɛi vɑn də 'ɑrbɛit], abbreviated as PvdA [peːveːdeː'aː] or P van de A [peː vɑn də aː]) is a social-democratic[5] political party in the Netherlands. The party was founded in 1946 as a merger of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, the Free-thinking Democratic League, and the Christian Democratic Union. Prime Ministers from the Labour Party have been Willem Drees
Willem Drees
(1948–1958), Joop den Uyl
Joop den Uyl
(1973–1977), and Wim Kok (1994–2002). From 2012 to 2017, the PvdA formed the second largest parliamental faction and was the junior partner in the Second Rutte cabinet
Second Rutte cabinet
with the People's Party for Freedom
Party for Freedom
and Democracy. Since 2016, Lodewijk Asscher has been Leader of the Labour Party
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Labour Party (Ireland)
The Labour Party (Irish: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social-democratic[2][6][7] political party in the Republic of Ireland. Founded in 1912 in Clonmel, County Tipperary, by James Connolly, James Larkin and William O'Brien as the political wing of the Irish Trade Union Congress,[8] it describes itself as a "democratic socialist party" in its constitution.[9] Labour continues to be the political arm of the Irish trade union and labour movement and seeks to represent workers interests in the Dáil and on a local level. Unlike the other main Irish political parties, Labour did not arise as a faction of the original Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
party (although it did incorporate the Democratic Left in 1999, a party which did trace its origins back to Sinn Féin)
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Israeli Labor Party
Israeli
Israeli
may refer to:Israelis, citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel Modern Hebrew, a language Israeli
Israeli
(newspaper), publis
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New Zealand Labour Party
The New Zealand
New Zealand
Labour Party (Māori: Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa),[10] or simply Labour (Reipa), is a centre-left political party in New Zealand.[6] The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism,[11] while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice.[2][3] It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.[8] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Labour Party was formed in 1916 by various socialist parties and trade unions. It is thus the country's oldest political party still in existence.[12] With its historic rival, the New Zealand National Party, Labour has dominated New Zealand
New Zealand
governments since the 1930s.[13] To date, there have been six periods of Labour government under ten Labour prime ministers. The party was first in power from 1935 to 1949, when it established New Zealand's welfare state
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Labour Party (Norway)
The Labour Party (Norwegian: Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic[6][7][8][9] political party in Norway. It was the senior partner of the governing Red-Green Coalition from 2005 to 2013, and its leader, Jens Stoltenberg, was Prime Minister of Norway
Prime Minister of Norway
during that time. The party is currently led by Jonas Gahr Støre. The Labour Party is officially committed to social-democratic ideals. Its slogan since the 1930s has been "everyone shall take part", and the party traditionally seeks a strong welfare state, funded through taxes and duties.[10] Since the 1980s, the party has included more of the principles of a social market economy in its policy, allowing for privatization of government-held assets and services and reducing income tax progressivity, following the wave of economic liberalization in the 1980s
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Industrial Relations
Industrial relations
Industrial relations
is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.[1][2] Industrial relations
Industrial relations
is increasingly being called employment relations or employee relations because of the importance of non-industrial employment relationships;[3] this move is sometimes seen as further broadening of the human resource management trend.[4] Indeed, some authors now define human resource management as synonymous with employee relations.[5] Other authors see employee relations as dealing only with non-unionized workers, whereas labor relations is seen as dealing with unionized workers.[6] Industrial relations studies examine various employment situations, not just ones with a unionized workforce. However, according to Bruce E
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Labour Economics
Labour economics
Labour economics
seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour. Labour markets or job markets function through the interaction of workers and employers. Labour economics
Labour economics
looks at the suppliers of labour services (workers) and the demanders of labour services (employers), and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income. In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings. It is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital
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Labor History (discipline)
Labor history or labour history is a sub-discipline of social history which specialises on the history of the working classes and the labor movement. The central concerns of labor historians include industrial relations and forms of labor protest (strikes, lock-outs), the rise of mass politics (especially the rise of socialism) and the social and cultural history of the industrial working classes
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Social Movement
A social movement is a type of group action. Social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites".[1] They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they carry out, resist, or undo a social change
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Work-to-rule
Work-to-rule is an industrial action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of their contract, and precisely follow all safety or other regulations, which may cause a slowdown or decrease in productivity, as they are no longer working during breaks or during unpaid extended hours and weekends (checking email, for instance).[1][2] Such an action is considered less disruptive than a strike or lockout, and obeying the rules is less susceptible to disciplinary action. Notable examples have included nurses refusing to answer telephones, teachers refusing to work for free at night and during weekends and holidays, and police officers refusing to issue citations
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Business Day
A business day is considered every official work day of the week; another common term is work day. These are the days between and holding from Monday through Friday, and do not include public holidays and weekends.[1] The definition of a business day varies by region. It depends on the local workweek which is dictated by local customs, religions, and business operations. For example, in the United States
United States
and much of the Western world, they are typically Monday to Friday. Within the European Union, the normal business days are Monday to Friday based on the working time regulation of the EU. The length of a business day varies by era, by region, by industry, and by company. Prevalent norms have included the 8-hour day and the 10-hour day, but various lengths, from 4 to 16 hours, have been normal in certain times and places. Business days are commonly used by couriers when determining the arrival date of a package
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