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Egyptian Language
The EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages . Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BCE, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian , Akkadian
Akkadian
, Eblaite and Elamite . It was spoken until the late 17th century AD, in the form of Coptic . The national language of modern Egypt
Egypt
is Egyptian Arabic , which gradually replaced Coptic as the vernacular language in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt
Egypt
. Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and has several hundred fluent speakers today
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Muslim Conquest Of Egypt
Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
Theodorus Aretion Constans II
Constans II
Cyrus of Alexandria Caliph
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Fusional Language
FUSIONAL LANGUAGES or INFLECTED LANGUAGES are a type of synthetic languages , distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features. For example, the Spanish verb comer ("to eat") has the first-person singular preterite tense form comí ('I ate'); the single suffix -í represents both the features of first-person singular agreement and preterite tense, instead of having a separate affix for each feature
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Nonconcatenative Morphology
NONCONCATENATIVE MORPHOLOGY, also called DISCONTINUOUS MORPHOLOGY and INTROFLECTION, is a form of word formation in which the root is modified and which does not involve stringing morphemes together sequentially
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National Language
A NATIONAL LANGUAGE is a language (or language variant , e.g. dialect ) that has some connection—de facto or de jure —with people and the territory they occupy. There is little consistency in the use of this term. One or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country may be referred to informally or designated in legislation as national languages of the country. National or official languages are mentioned in over 150 world constitutions. C.M.B
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Elamite Language
ELAMITE is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites . It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Elamite has no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate . The lack of established relatives is one reason for its interpretation being difficult. CONTENTS * 1 Writing system
Writing system
* 2 Linguistic typology * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 Morphology * 5.1 Nouns * 5.2 Verbs * 6 Syntax * 6.1 Language samples * 7 Relations to other language families * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links WRITING SYSTEM Elamite cuneiform , adapted from Akkadian cuneiform , was used from c. 2500 to 331 BC
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Sumerian Language
SUMERIAN (Sumerian: 𒅴𒂠 EME.G̃IR15 "native tongue ") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern-day Iraq
Iraq
). During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians
Akkadians
, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on the East Semitic language Akkadian
Akkadian
(and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a substantial scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian
Akkadian
in the third millennium BC as a Sprachbund
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Eblaite Language
EBLAITE /ˈɛblə.aɪt/ (also known as Eblan ISO 639-3 ), or PALEO SYRIAN, is an extinct Semitic language
Semitic language
which was used during the third millennium BCE by the populations of Northern Syria. It was named after the ancient city of Ebla
Ebla
, in western modern Syria
Syria
. Variants of the language were also spoken in Mari and Nagar . According to Cyrus H. Gordon , although scribes might have spoken it sometimes, Eblaite was probably not spoken much, being rather a written lingua franca with East and West Semitic features
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics , an EMPHATIC CONSONANT is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents . In specific Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized , velarized , ejective , or plain voiced or voiceless consonants . It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages
Afro-Asiatic languages
, where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants . In Semitic studies , they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet

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Linguistic Typology
LINGUISTIC TYPOLOGY is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features. Its aim is to describe and explain the common properties and the structural diversity of the world's languages. It includes five subdisciplines: qualitative typology, which deals with the issue of comparing languages and within-language variance; quantitative typology, which deals with the distribution of structural patterns in the world’s languages; theoretical typology, which explains these distributions; syntactic typology, which deals with word order, word form, and word choice; and lexical typology, which deals with language vocabulary
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Hieroglyph
A HIEROGLYPH (Greek for "sacred writing ") is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system . Logographic scripts that are pictographic in form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also sometimes called "hieroglyphs". In Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
, especially during the Renaissance
Renaissance
, a "hieroglyph" was an artistic representation of an esoteric idea, which Neoplatonists believed actual Egyptian hieroglyphs to be. The word hieroglyphics refer to a hieroglyphic script. Unlike English, the hieroglyphic script was spelt exactly as it was sounded out. Only those privileged with an extensive education (i.e. the Pharaoh, nobility and priests) were able to read and write hieroglyphs; others used simpler 'joined-up' versions: demotic and hieratic script
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Glyphs
In typography , a GLYPH /ˈɡlɪf/ is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing . As such, glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word, or otherwise contribute to a specific meaning of what is written, with that meaning dependent on cultural and social usage. For example, in most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, and an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still likely to be recognized correctly. In Turkish, however, it is a glyph, because that language has two distinct versions of the letter i, with and without a dot . In Japanese syllabaries , a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves
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Early Modern Period
The EARLY MODERN PERIOD of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era . Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, with the Renaissance
Renaissance
period, and with the Age of Discovery (especially with the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492, but also with Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to the East in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789. Historians in recent decades have argued that from a worldwide standpoint, the most important feature of the early modern period was its globalizing character
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Literary Language
A LITERARY LANGUAGE is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing of the language. This may also include liturgical writing . A literary variety of a language often gives rise to a standard variety of the language. The difference between literary and non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others. Where there is a strong divergence, the language is said to exhibit diglossia . In Latin
Latin
, Classical Latin
Latin
was the literary register used in writing from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, while Vulgar Latin
Latin
was the common, spoken variety used across the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The Latin
Latin
brought by Roman soldiers to Gaul
Gaul
, Iberia , or Dacia was not identical to the Latin
Latin
of Cicero
Cicero
, and differed from it in vocabulary, syntax, and grammar
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Genetic Relationship (linguistics)
In linguistics , GENETIC RELATIONSHIP is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family . The term GENEALOGICAL RELATIONSHIP is sometimes used to avoid confusion with the unrelated use of the term in biological genetics . Languages that possess genetic ties with one another belong to the same linguistic grouping, known as a language family . These ties are established through use of the comparative method of linguistic analysis. Two languages are considered to be genetically related if one is descended from the other or if both are descended from a common ancestor. For example, Italian is descended from Latin
Latin
. Italian and Latin
Latin
are therefore said to be genetically related. Spanish is also descended from Latin. Therefore, Spanish and Italian are genetically related
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