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Egyptian Language
The Egyptian language
Egyptian language
was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian
stage (mid-3rd millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt). Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.[2] Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period. The spoken language evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Chronological
Chronology
Chronology
(from Latin
Latin
chronologia, from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia)[2] is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events. It is also "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events".[3] Chronology
Chronology
is part of periodization
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Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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Typology (linguistics)
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features
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Fusional Language
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features
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Nonconcatenative Morphology
Nonconcatenative morphology, also called discontinuous morphology and introflection, is a form of word formation in which the root is modified and which does not involve stringing morphemes together sequentially.[1]Contents1 Types1.1 Ablaut 1.2 Transfixation 1.3 Reduplication 1.4 Truncation2 Semitic languages 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes[edit] Ablaut[edit] Main article: Ablaut In English, for example, while plurals are usually formed by adding the suffix -s, certain words use nonconcatenative processes for their plural forms:foot /fʊt/ → feet /fiːt/;and many irregular verbs form their past tenses, past participles, or both in this manner:freeze /ˈfriːz/ → froze /ˈfroʊz/, frozen /ˈfroʊzən/.This specific form of nonconcatenative morphology is known as base modification or ablaut, a form in which part of the root undergoes a phonological change without necessarily adding new phonological material
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents. In specific Semitic languages, the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized, velarized, ejective, or plain voiced or voiceless consonants. It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages, where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants. In Semitic studies, they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet. With respect to particular Semitic and Afro-Asiatic languages, this term describes the particular phonetic feature which distinguishes these consonants from other consonants
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Semitic Languages
The Semitic languages[2][3] are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
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Cushitic Languages
The Cushitic languages
Cushitic languages
are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Proto-Afroasiatic Language
The Proto–Afroasiatic language is the reconstructed proto-language from which all modern Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
are descended. It is believed by scholars to have been spoken as a single language around 12,000 to 18,000 years ago, but there is no consensus as to where the Afroasiatic Urheimat, the homeland of Proto-Afroasiatic speakers, was located. Although Afroasiatic is the earliest attested language family in the world, the reconstruction of Proto-Afroasiatic is problematic and largely lacking, which is sometimes attributed to the sheer age of the language. Reconstructed words for fauna and flora and evidence of linguistic contact with language families known to have been spoken in Eurasia suggest that its home was in the Middle East, probably the Levant
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Morphology (linguistics)
In linguistics, morphology (/mɔːrˈfɒlədʒi/[1]) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.[2][3] It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words,[4] and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.[5] While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language
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Genetic Relationship (linguistics)
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family. The term genealogical relationship is sometimes used to avoid confusion with the unrelated use of the term in biological genetics. Languages that possess genetic ties with one another belong to the same linguistic grouping, known as a language family. These ties are established through use of the comparative method of linguistic analysis. Two languages are considered to be genetically related if one is descended from the other or if both are descended from a common ancestor. For example, Italian is descended from Latin. Italian and Latin
Latin
are therefore said to be genetically related. Spanish is also descended from Latin. Therefore, Spanish and Italian are genetically related
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Reconstructed Language
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages. There are two kinds of reconstruction: Internal reconstruction uses irregularities in a single language to make inferences about an earlier stage of that language – that is, it is based on evidence from that language alone. Comparative reconstruction, usually referred to just as reconstruction, establishes features of the ancestor of two or more related languages, belonging to the same language family, by means of the comparative method
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
Egypt
is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the end of the Naqada III
Naqada III
archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom.[1] With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis
Thinis
to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art, architecture and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Before the unification of Egypt, the land was settled with autonomous villages. With the early dynasties, and for much of Egypt's history thereafter, the country came to be known as the Two Lands
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