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Egyptian Arabic Phonology
This article is about the phonology of Egyptian Arabic, also known as Cairene Arabic or Masri.[1] It deals with the phonology and phonetics of Egyptian Arabic as well as the phonological development of child native speakers of the dialect
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Voiceless Dental Fricative
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English speakers as the 'th' in thing. Though rather rare as a phoneme in the world's inventory of languages, it is encountered in some of the most widespread and influential (see below). The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨θ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is T. The IPA symbol is the Greek letter theta, which is used for this sound in post-classical Greek, and the sound is thus often referred to as "theta". The dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the upper or lower teeth, as they are with other dental consonants. This sound and its voiced counterpart are rare phonemes
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Tap Consonant
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.Contents1 Contrast with stops and trills 2 Tap vs. flap 3 IPA symbols 4 Types of flaps4.1 Alveolar flaps 4.2 Retroflex flaps 4.3 Lateral flaps 4.4 Non-coronal flaps 4.5 Nasal flaps 4.6 Tapped fricatives5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksContrast with stops and trills[edit] The main difference between a flap and a stop is that in a flap there is no buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation and consequently no release burst. Otherwise a flap is similar to a brief stop. Flaps also contrast with trills, where the airstream causes the articulator to vibrate. Trills may be realized as a single contact, like a flap, but are variable, whereas a flap is limited to a single contact
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Voiceless Labiodental Fricative
The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨f⟩.Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiceless labiodental fricative:Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords
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Voiceless Postalveolar Fricative
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠̊˔], the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative [ɕ]. This article discusses the first two.Contents1 Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative[edit] Voiceless palato-alveolar fricativeʃIPA number 134EncodingEntity (decimal) ʃUnicode (hex) U+0283X-SAMPA SKirshenbaum SBrailleImageListensource · helpA voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many languages, including English
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Voiceless Velar Fricative
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It was part of the consonant inventory of Old English and can still be found in some dialects of English, most notably in Scottish English, e.g. in loch, broch or saugh (willow). The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨x⟩, the Latin and English letter x. It is also used in broad transcription instead of the symbol ⟨χ⟩, the Greek chi, (or, more properly, ⟨ꭓ⟩, the Latin chi) for the voiceless uvular fricative. There is also a voiceless post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages
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Voiceless Pharyngeal Fricative
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is an h-bar, ⟨ħ⟩. In the transcription of Arabic, Berber and other scripts, it is often written ⟨Ḥ⟩, ⟨ḥ⟩. Typically characterized as a fricative in the upper pharynx, it is often a whispered [h].Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiceless pharyngeal fricative:Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is pharyngeal, which means it is articulated with the tongue root against the back of the throat (the pharynx). Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords
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Voiceless Glottal Fricative
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant
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Voiced Labiodental Fricative
The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨v⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is v. Although this is a familiar sound to most European and Middle Eastern listeners, it is cross-linguistically a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]
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Voiced Postalveolar Fricative
Voiced
Voiced
fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative [ʒ], the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠˔], the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative [ʑ]. This article discusses the first two.Contents1 Voiced
Voiced
palato-alveolar fricative1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Voiced
Voiced
postalveolar non-sibilant fricative2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography Voiced
Voiced
palato-alveolar fricative[edit] Voiced
Voiced
palato-alveolar fricativeʒIPA number 135EncodingEntity (decimal) ʒUnicode (hex) U+0292X-SAMPA ZKirshenbaum ZBrailleImageListensource · helpThe voiced palato-alveolar fricative or voiced domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages
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Voiced Velar Fricative
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but it existed in Old English. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[1] use for the voiced velar fricative. The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription. There is also a voiced post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages
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Voiced Pharyngeal Fricative
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is [ʕ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is ?. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharyngeal. Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [ʕ] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation
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Trill Consonant
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator. Standard Spanish <rr> as in perro, for example is an alveolar trill. Trills are very different from flaps. Whereas with a flap (or tap), a specific gesture is used to strike the active articulator against the passive one, in the case of a trill the articulator is held in place, where the airstream causes it to vibrate. Usually a trill vibrates for 2–3 periods, but may be up to 5, or even more if geminate. However, trills may also be produced with only a single period
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Voiced Velar Stop
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɡ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-story G , but the double-story G is considered an acceptable alternative
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Dental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Trills
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is ⟨r⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. Quite often, ⟨r⟩ is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. That is partly for ease of typesetting and partly because ⟨r⟩ is the letter used in the orthographies of such languages. In most Indo-European languages, the sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed positions
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Approximant
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough[1] nor with enough articulatory precision[2] to create turbulent airflow
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