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Egyptian Arabic Language
EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians
Egyptians
. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
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Vernacular Literature
VERNACULAR LITERATURE is literature written in the vernacular —the speech of the "common people". In the European tradition, this effectively means literature not written in Latin
Latin
. In this context, vernacular literature appeared during the Middle Ages at different periods in the various countries; the earliest European vernacular literatures are Irish literature , Welsh literature , Anglo-Saxon literature and Gothic literature . The Italian poet Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
, in his De vulgari eloquentia , was possibly the first European writer to argue cogently for the promotion of literature in the vernacular
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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf . Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages. Another major distinction is to be made between the widely diverging colloquial spoken varieties, used for nearly all everyday speaking situations, and the formal standardized language, found mostly in writing or in prepared speech
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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard (al-)fuṣḥá (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah), the standard language in use today
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Quran
The QURAN (/kɔːrˈɑːn/ kor-AHN ; Arabic : القرآن‎‎ al-Qurʾān, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized QUR\'AN or KORAN ) is the central religious text of Islam
Islam
, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
( Allah
Allah
). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature . The Quran
Quran
is divided into chapters (surah in Arabic), which are then divided into verses (ayah ). Muslims believe that the Quran
Quran
was verbally revealed by God
God
to Muhammad
Muhammad
through the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
(Jibril ), gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE , when Muhammad
Muhammad
was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death
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Classical Arabic
CLASSICAL ARABIC is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi
Old Higazi
. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content; it is also used in modernized versions of Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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MENA
MENA
MENA
is an English-language acronym referring to the MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA region. The term MENA
MENA
covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco
Morocco
to Iran
Iran
, including all Middle Eastern Mashriq and Maghreb countries. This toponym is roughly synonymous with the term the Greater Middle East
Middle East
. The population of the MENA
MENA
region at its least extent is estimated to be around 381 million people. This constitutes about 6% of the total world population. The MENA
MENA
acronym is often used in academia , military planning, disaster relief, and business writing
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Arab World
The ARAB WORLD (Arabic : العالم العربي‎‎ al-ʿālam al-ʿarabī; formally: ARAB HOMELAND, الوطن العربي al-wațan al-ʿarabī), also known as the ARAB NATION (الأمة العربية al-ʾummah al-ʿarabīah) or the ARAB STATES, currently consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League . These Arab states occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north to the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world
Arab world
has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
). It used to have official status in Albania
Albania
, Malta
Malta
and Monaco
Monaco
, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official), Cyprus
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ ( listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca . Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England
England
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
particularly Norse , as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages
Romance languages
, particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Dialect Continuum
A DIALECT CONTINUUM or DIALECT CHAIN is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that each differs only slightly from its neighbors, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible . That happens, for example, across large parts of India or the Maghreb . Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal
Portugal
, southern Belgium
Belgium
and southern Italy , and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
. Leonard Bloomfield used the name DIALECT AREA. Charles F. Hockett used the term L-COMPLEX. It is analogous to a ring species in evolutionary biology
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Vernacular
A VERNACULAR or VERNACULAR LANGUAGE is the native language or native dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary , national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (also called a vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect " as synonyms . The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c. 1250.) It deals with Scanian and Scanian Ecclesiastical Law . An allegory of philosophy and grammar, Trinci Palace , Foligno, Italy, by Gentile da Fabriano , who lived at about the time the Italian language was being standardized
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Latin Letters
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Lingua Franca
A LINGUA FRANCA (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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South East Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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