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Egyptian Arabic
EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians . Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Mena
MENA
MENA
is an English-language acronym referring to the MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA region. The term MENA
MENA
covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco
Morocco
to Iran
Iran
, including all Middle Eastern Mashriq and Maghreb
Maghreb
countries. This toponym is roughly synonymous with the term the Greater Middle East
Middle East
. The population of the MENA
MENA
region at its least extent is estimated to be around 381 million people. This constitutes about 6% of the total world population. The MENA
MENA
acronym is often used in academia , military planning, disaster relief, and business writing
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Dialect Continuum
A DIALECT CONTINUUM or DIALECT CHAIN is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that each differs only slightly from its neighbors, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible . That happens, for example, across large parts of India or the Maghreb
Maghreb
. Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal
Portugal
, southern Belgium
Belgium
and southern Italy , and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
. Leonard Bloomfield used the name DIALECT AREA. Charles F. Hockett used the term L-COMPLEX. It is analogous to a ring species in evolutionary biology
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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South East Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia
West Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

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SMS
SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS) is a text messaging service component of most telephone , World Wide Web , and mobile telephony systems . It uses standardized communication protocols to enable mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages. An intermediary service can facilitate a text-to-voice conversion to be sent to landlines. SMS was the most widely used data application, with an estimated 3.5 billion active users, or about 80% of all mobile phone subscribers, at the end of 2010. SMS, as used on modern handsets, originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers that used standardized phone protocols. These were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) series of standards. The protocols allowed users to send and receive messages of up to 160 alpha-numeric characters to and from GSM mobile handsets
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Latin Letters
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet , which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet . The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet . Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian , is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino
San Marino
, Vatican City and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
)
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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