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Egyptian Arabic
EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians . Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African
North African
dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family . It originated in the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt
Egypt
around the capital Cairo
Cairo
. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
descended from the Arabic language
Arabic language
which was brought to Egypt
Egypt
during the seventh-century AD Muslim conquest , its development was highly influenced by the Coptic language which was the native language of the Egyptians of pre-Arabacized Egypt
Egypt
, and later it had small influences by other languages such as French , Italian , Turkish and English . The 94 million Egyptians speak a continuum of dialects , among which Cairene is the most prominent
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Masri (other)
MASRI ( Egyptian Arabic مصرى: "Egyptian") may refer to: * Egyptian Arabic , the variety of Arabic spoken in Egypt. * An Egyptian . * El-Masry
El-Masry
, an Egyptian football team in Port Said .PERSONS First name / given name * Masri Feki , French writer, researcher Surname * Bashar Masri , Palestinian American entrepreneur * Mai Masri (born 1959), Palestinian filmmaker * Mark Masri (born 1979), Canadian singer, songwriter and producer of Lebanese origin * Mona Masri (born 1985), Swedish journalist, critic and radio host * Tariq Masri (born 1973), American bassoonistSEE ALSO * Al-Masri , a common last name in the Arab World. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MASRI. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Masri_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Egypt
Coordinates : 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30 Arab Republic of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية * ARABIC : Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyah EGYPTIAN : Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeya _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady _ _My country, my country, my country_ Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic NATIONAL LANGUAGE Egyptian Arabic RELIGION * 90% Muslim * 9% Orthodox Christian * 1% Other Christian DEMONYM Egyptian GOVERNMENT Unitary semi-presidential republic • PRESIDENT Abdel Fattah el-Sisi • PRIME MINISTER Sherif Ismail LEGISLATURE House of Representatives ESTABLISHMENT • Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. LITERATURE * Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. * Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. * Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. * Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995)
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Arabic Alphabet
_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE * _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE * _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE * _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE * _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE * _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_ * Tifinagh * _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family _(see)_ * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE * _Avestan _ 4 c. CE * _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * _ Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE * _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE * _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE* _Old Uyghur _ * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c. BCE * _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE * Latin 7 c. BCE * Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE * _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham _ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE * _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _Glagolitic _ 862 CE* Cyrillic c. 940 CE * _Old Permic _ 1372 CE Thaana 18 c
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Arabic Chat Alphabet
The ARABIC CHAT ALPHABET, also known as ARABISH, ARABY ( Arabic : عربي, _ʿArabī_), _ARABIZI_ (عربيزي, _ʿArabīzī_), Mu'arrab (معرب, _Muʿarrab_), and FRANCO-ARABIC, is an alphabet used to communicate in Arabic over the Internet or for sending messages via cellular phones . It is a character encoding of Arabic to the Latin script and the Arabic numerals . It differs from more formal and academic Arabic transliteration systems, as it avoids diacritics by freely using digits and multigraphs for letters that do not exist in the basic Latin script ( ASCII ). Arabic chat alphabet is used to communicate in the Arabic language over the Internet or for sending messages via cellular phones when the Arabic alphabet is unavailable or difficult to use for technical reasons. Arabish is most commonly used by youth in the Arab world in very informal settings, for example communicating with friends or other youths. Even though the Arabic script is well integrated with Windows XP and Mac OS X , people still use it in Arabic forums and instant Messaging programs because they do not always have Arabic keyboards
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European . ISO 639-3 is intended for use as metadata codes in a wide range of applications. It is widely used in computer and information systems, such as the Internet, in which many languages need to be supported. In archives and other information storage, they are used in cataloging systems, indicating what language a resource is in or about. The codes are also frequently used in the linguistic literature and elsewhere to compensate for the fact that language names may be obscure or ambiguous
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Glottolog
_GLOTTOLOG_ is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig , Germany. There are two components: _Languoid catalogue_, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and _Langdoc_, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue _ Ethnologue _ in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them. In some cases, the language names used in the bibliographic entries in _Langdoc_ are identified by ISO or Glottolog code; this is an area of ongoing expansion. _Glottolog_ differs in several negative ways as well: Notably, apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic center, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, _Ethnologue_, and other online language databases
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics . For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, , or with a letter plus diacritics, , depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription ; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either or , depending on the context and language
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all . They can be used to guess a text's encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by definition not a correctly encoded Unicode
Unicode
text. Unicode's U+FEFF Byte order mark character can be inserted at the beginning of a Unicode text to signal its endianness : a program reading such a text and encountering 0xFFFE would then know that it should switch the byte order for all the following characters
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