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Edward Stettinius, Jr.
EDWARD REILLY STETTINIUS JR. (October 22, 1900 – October 31, 1949) was an American businessman who served as United States
United States
Secretary of State under Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman from 1944 to 1945, and as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1945 to 1946. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Later life * 4 Popular culture * 5 Archive * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 Primary sources * 8 External links EARLY LIFEHe was born in Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
on October 22, 1900, the younger of two sons and third of four children of Edward R. Stettinius and Judith Carrington. His mother was a Virginian of colonial English ancestry. His father was of German descent and was a native of St. Louis, Missouri
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Edward R. Stettinius
EDWARD REILLY STETTINIUS (February 15, 1865 - September 3, 1925) was an American executive. He was president of Diamond Match Company in Barberton, Ohio for a time. After the start of World War I , he worked at J. P. Morgan and Company coordinating the purchase of war supplies for the Allies . When the United States entered the war, he went to work in its War Department . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 3 Notes * 4 References BIOGRAPHYStettinius was born in St. Louis, Missouri . His father was a wholesale grocer. He was educated at St. Louis University . The needs of his family obligated him to drop out of school at age 16, and he went to work for a grocery firm and then a hat and cap firm. He then tried several lines of business on his own account, but was not very successful, and went to work in a banking firm
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United States Ambassador To The United Nations
The UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations
United Nations
. The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States
United States
of America to the United Nations
United Nations
, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States
United States
of America in the Security Council of the United Nations
United Nations
"; it is also known as the U.S. Permanent Representative, or "Perm Rep", to the United Nations. The U.S. Permanent Representative, currently Nikki Haley
Nikki Haley
, is charged with representing the United States
United States
on the U.N
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Harry S. Truman
World War I
World War I
* Western Front HARRY S. TRUMAN (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1945–53), assuming that office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II . He is known for launching the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, for leading the Cold War against Soviet and Chinese communism by establishing the Truman Doctrine and NATO
NATO
, and for intervening in the Korean War . In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal , but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them
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Herschel Johnson
HERSCHEL VESPASIAN JOHNSON (May 3, 1894 – April 16, 1966) was a U.S. diplomat from North Carolina . He served as a U.S. Foreign Service Officer from 1921–1953, whose career included posts in Europe , Latin America , and the United Nations . He served as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Sweden between 12 December 1941 and 28 April 1946. Thereafter, he served as the acting U.S. ambassador to the United Nations between 1946 and 1947. In 1948 appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Brazil . During his time in Sweden he made humanitarian efforts to save civilian lives and was in touch with Raoul Wallenberg . Herschel V. Johnson was a vocal proponent of the 1947 Palestine Partition Plan . The outcome of the UN vote is attributed to his collaboration with Andrei A. Gromyko , otherwise Johnson's political opponent
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List Of Secretaries Of State Of The United States
This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States . CONTENTS * 1 Secretaries of Foreign Affairs (1781–1789) * 2 List of Secretaries of State * 3 List of Secretaries of State by time in office * 4 Living former Secretaries of State * 5 Notes * 6 References SECRETARIES OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS (1781–1789) Main article: United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs LIST OF SECRETARIES OF STATE PARTIES No party (1) Federalist (3) Democratic-Republican (6) Democratic (26) Whig (5) Republican (28) STATUS Denotes acting Secretary of State NO. PORTRAIT NAME STATE OF RESIDENCE TOOK OFFICE LEFT OFFICE PRESIDENT(S) – John Jay Acting New York September 26, 1789 March 22, 1790 George Washington 1 Thomas Jefferson Virginia March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793 2 Edmund J
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United States Secretary Of State
A SECRETARY or PERSONAL ASSISTANT is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events. CONTENTS * 1 Duties and functions * 2 Etymology * 3 Origin * 4 Modern developments * 5 Contemporary employment * 6 Training by country * 6.1 Belgium * 6.2 United States * 7 Executive assistant * 7.1 Civilian * 7.2 Military * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS _ This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency -------------------------FIRST TERM * 1932 campaign * Election * 1st Inauguration * First 100 days * New Deal * Glass-Steagall Act * WPA * Social Security * SEC * Fireside Chats -------------------------SECOND TERM * 1936 campaign * Election * 2nd Inauguration * Supreme Court Packing * National Recovery Act * 1937 Recession * March of Dimes * Pre-war foreign policy -------------------------THIRD TERM * 1940 campaign * Election * 3rd Inauguration * WORLD WAR II* World War II * Attack on Pearl Harbor * Infamy Speech * Atlantic Charter * Japanese Internment * Tehran Conference * United Nations * D-Day * Second Bill of Rights * G.I
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Cordell Hull
CORDELL HULL (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee
Tennessee
. He is known as the longest-serving Secretary of State , holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during most of World War II
World War II
. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations
United Nations
, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations". CONTENTS * 1 Life and government * 2 Early life * 3 Early national career * 4 U.S. Senate, Secretary of State * 5 SS _St
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James F. Byrnes
JAMES FRANCIS BYRNES (US : /ˈbɜːrnz/ ; May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina
South Carolina
. During his career, Byrnes served as a U.S. Representative (1911–1925), a U.S. Senator (1931–1941), a Justice of the Supreme Court (1941–1942), Secretary of State (1945–1947), and 104th governor of South Carolina
South Carolina
(1951–1955). He is one of very few politicians to serve in all three branches of the American federal government while also being active in state government. He was a confidant of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , and was one of the most powerful men in American domestic and foreign policy in the mid-1940s. Historian George E
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United States Under Secretary Of State
UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE (U/S) is a title used by senior officials of the United States Department of State who rank above the Assistant Secretaries and below the Deputy Secretaries . From 1919 to 1972, the Under Secretary was the second-ranking official at the Department of State (immediately beneath the United States Secretary of State ), serving as the Secretary's principal deputy, chief assistant, and Acting Secretary in the event of the Secretary's absence. Prior second-ranking positions had been the Chief Clerk , the Assistant Secretary of State, and the Counselor . Prior to 1944, a number of offices in the Department reported directly to the Under Secretary. In July 1972, the position of Deputy Secretary superseded that of Under Secretary of State
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Sumner Welles
BENJAMIN SUMNER WELLES (October 14, 1892 – September 24, 1961) was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service . He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1936 to 1943, during FDR's presidency. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Diplomatic career * 2.1 Latin America * 2.2 Years out of government service * 2.3 Cuba
Cuba
* 2.4 World War II * 2.5 Soviet occupation of the Baltics * 2.6 Rivalries * 2.7 Resignation * 3 Later years * 4 Personal life * 4.1 Legacy * 5 Works * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 Cuba
Cuba
* 8 External links EARLY LIFEBenjamin Sumner Welles
Sumner Welles
was born in New York City
New York City
, the son of Benjamin J
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Joseph Grew
JOSEPH CLARK GREW (May 27, 1880 – May 25, 1965) was an American career diplomat and Foreign Service officer . Early in his career, he was the chargé d\'affaires at the American Embassy in Vienna when the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 9, 1917. Later, Grew was the Ambassador to Denmark (1920–1921) and Ambassador to Switzerland (1921-1924). In 1924, Grew became the Under Secretary of State , and in this position he oversaw the establishment of the U.S. Foreign Service . Grew was the Ambassador to Turkey (1927–1932) and the Ambassador to Japan beginning in 1932. He was the American ambassador in Tokyo at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) and the opening of war between the United States
United States
and the Japanese Empire
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Lend-Lease
The LEND-LEASE policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States", (Pub.L. 77–11, H.R. 1776, 55 Stat. 31, enacted March 11, 1941) was a program under which the United States supplied Free France , the United Kingdom , the Republic of China , and later the Soviet Union and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945. This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. It was signed into law on March 11, 1941 and ended in September 1945. In general the aid was free, although some hardware, such as ships, were returned after the war. In return, the U.S. was given leases on army and naval bases in Allied territory during the war. Canada operated a similar smaller program under a different name
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Leo Crowley
LEO THOMAS CROWLEY (August 15, 1889– April 15, 1972) was a senior administrator for President Franklin D. Roosevelt as the head of the Foreign Economic Administration . Previously he had served as Alien Property Custodian and as chief of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation . Late in the 1930s, senior Washington officials discovered that Crowley had embezzled from his banks in Wisconsin in the 1920s and early 1930s. They covered it up. Biographer Stuart Weiss says, Crowley's is: the darker story of the businessman as speculator and embezzler, whose fraud was covered up in Wisconsin and Washington.... the morally complex and compelling story of Crowley as a bureaucrat and politician in Washington, administering multiple major agencies, often simultaneously;...but also deeply involved in conflicts of interest a later generation would find unacceptable and even incomprehensible
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Foreign Economic Administration
In the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt , the FOREIGN ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATION was formed to relieve friction between US agencies operating abroad. As described by the biographer of the FEA's chief, Leo Crowley , the agency was designed and run by "The Nation's #1 Pinch-hitter". S. L. Weiss describes Crowley's management style as follows: “Based on his own success in Washington, he had concluded that sound administration meant clearly demarcating lines of authority between agencies and, within each, finding the right staff and giving it only the most basic guidance and coordination”
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