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Edison Screw
Edison screw
Edison screw
(ES) is a standard socket for light bulbs in North America. It was developed by Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
and was licensed in 1909 under the Mazda trademark. Normally, the bulbs have right-hand threaded metal bases (caps) which screw into matching threaded sockets (lamp holders). For bulbs powered by AC current, the thread is connected to neutral and the contact on the bottom tip of the base is connected to live. In North America
North America
and continental Europe, Edison screws displaced other socket types for general lighting. In the early days of electrification, Edison screws were the only standard connector, and appliances other than bulbs were connected to AC power via light sockets
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Volt
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.[1] It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827).Contents1 Definition1.1 Josephson junction definition2 Water-flow analogy 3 Common voltages 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDefinition[edit] One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points.[2] It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it
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Light Fixture
A light fixture (US English), light fitting (UK English), or luminaire is an electrical device that contains an electric lamp that provides illumination. All light fixtures have a fixture body and one or more lamps. The lamps may be in sockets for easy replacement—or, in the case of some LED
LED
fixtures, hard-wired in place. Fixtures may also have a switch to control the light, either attached to the lamp body or attached to the power cable. Permanent light fixtures, such as dining room chandeliers, may have no switch on the fixture itself, but rely on a wall switch. Fixtures require an electrical connection to a power source, typically AC mains
AC mains
power, but some run on battery power for camping or emergency lights. Permanent lighting fixtures are directly wired
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Emergency Exit
An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire: the combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc. The qualifications for an emergency exit are as follows: it must be in a location that is easily accessible, the exit must have an area or location that it can bring you to in the event of any emergency situation, it must be controlled by the inside of the building, it must be well managed and regularly up kept, and it must be in a permanent location. It is usually in a strategically located (e.g. in a stairwell, hallway, or other likely places) outward opening door with a crash bar on it and with exit signs leading to it
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Retrofitting
Retrofitting
Retrofitting
refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.power plant retrofit, improving power plant efficiency / increasing output / reducing emissions home energy retrofit, the improving of existing buildings with energy efficiency equipment seismic retrofit, the process of strengthening older buildings in order to make them earthquake resistant Naval vessels often undergo retrofitting in dry dock to incorporate new technologies, change their operational designation, or compensate for perceived weaknesses in their design or gun plan.
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Ampere
The ampere (/ˈæmpɪər, æmˈpɪər/;[1] symbol: A),[2] often shortened to "amp",[3] is the base unit of electric current in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI).[4][5] It is named after André-Marie Ampère
André-Marie Ampère
(1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics. The International System of Units
International System of Units
defines the ampere in terms of other base units by measuring the electromagnetic force between electrical conductors carrying electric current. The earlier CGS measurement system had two different definitions of current, one essentially the same as the SI's and the other using electric charge as the base unit, with the unit of charge defined by measuring the force between two charged metal plates
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Low Voltage
In electrical engineering low voltage is a relative term, the definition varying by context. Different definitions are used in electric power transmission and distribution, and electrical safety codes define "low voltage" circuits that are exempt from the protection required at higher voltages
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Alternating Current
Alternating current
Alternating current
(AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current
Alternating current
is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[1][2] The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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Ceiling Fan
A ceiling fan is a mechanical fan, usually electrically powered, suspended from the ceiling of a room, that uses hub-mounted rotating paddles to circulate air. Ceiling
Ceiling
fans typically rotate more slowly than other types of circulating fans, such as electric desk fans. They cool people effectively by introducing slow movement into the otherwise still, hot air of a room. Fans never actually cool air, unlike air-conditioning equipment, but use significantly less power (cooling air is thermodynamically expensive)
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Recreational Vehicle
The term recreational vehicle (RV) is often used as a broad category of motor vehicles and trailers which include living quarters for designed temporary accommodation.[1][2] Types of RVs include motorhomes, campervans, caravans (also known as travel trailers and camper trailers), fifth-wheel trailers, popup campers and truck campers.Contents1 Features 2 History 3 Usage 4 Regional language variations 5 Demographics 6 Terms 7 See also 8 References 9 Further readingFeatures[edit]Map symbol used by the US NPS to indicate an RV campgroundTypical amenities of an RV include a kitchen, a bathroom, and one or more sleeping facilities. RVs can range from the utilitarian — containing only sleeping quarters and basic cooking facilities — to the luxurious, with features like air conditioning (AC), water heaters, televisions and satellite receptors, and quartz countertops, for example[3]. RVs can either be trailers (which are towed behind motor vehicles) or self-motorized[4]
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Christmas Lights
Christmas
Christmas
lights (also known as fairy lights) are lights used for decoration in celebration of Christmas, often on display throughout the Christmas
Christmas
season including Advent
Advent
and Christmastide. The custom goes back to when Christmas
Christmas
trees were decorated with candles, which symbolized Christ being the light of the world;[1] these were brought by Christians into their homes in early modern Germany.[2][3] Christmas
Christmas
trees displayed publicly and illuminated with electric lights became popular in the early 20th century. By the mid-20th century, it became customary to display strings of electric lights as along streets and on buildings; Christmas
Christmas
decorations detached from the Christmas
Christmas
tree itself
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Extra-low Voltage
Extra-low voltage (ELV) is an electricity supply voltage in a range which carries a low risk of dangerous electrical shock.[1][2][3][4] There are various standards that define Extra-Low Voltage
Voltage
(ELV) The International Electrotechnical Commission
International Electrotechnical Commission
member organizations and the UK IET (BS 7671:2008) define an ELV device or circuit as one in which the electrical potential between conductor or electrical conductor and earth (ground) does not exceed 50 V a.c. or 120 V d.c. (ripple free). EU's Low Voltage
Voltage
Directive applies from 50 V a.c. or 75 V d.c. The IEC and IET go on to define actual types of extra-low voltage systems, for example SELV, PELV, FELV. These can be supplied using sources including motor / fossil fuel generator sets, transformers, switched PSU's or rechargeable battery
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