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Economy Of Turkmenistan
The economy of Turkmenistan is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated areas, and huge gas and oil resources. In terms of natural gas reserves, it is ranked 6th in the world. Turkmenistan’s two largest agricultural crops are cotton, most of which is produced for export, and wheat, which is domestically consumed.[8] Turkmenistan is among the top ten producers of cotton in the world. From 1998 to 2005, Turkmenistan suffered from a lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by an average of roughly 15% per year from 2003 to 2008, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices.[
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Oil Platform
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, and process petroleum and natural gas that lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. Many oil platforms will also contain facilities to accommodate their workforce. Most commonly, oil platforms engage in activities on the continental shelf, though they can also be used in lakes, inshore waters, and inland seas. Depending on the circumstances, the platform may be fixed to the ocean floor, consist of an artificial island, or float.[1] Remote subsea wells may also be connected to a platform by flow lines and by umbilical connections. These sub-sea solutions may consist of one or more subsea wells or of one or more manifold centres for multiple wells. Offshore drilling presents environmental challenges, both from the produced hydrocarbons and the materials used during the drilling operation
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Chemicals
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.[1][2] Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.[3] Chemical substances can be simple substances,[4] chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical elements may or may not be included in the definition, depending on expert viewpoint.[4] Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose)
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South Korea

South Korea's mixed economy[308][309][310] ranks 11th nominal[311] and 13th purchasing power parity GDP in the world, identifying it as one of the G-20 major economies. It is a developed country with a high-income economy and is the most industrialized member country of the OECD. South Korean brands such as LG Electronics and Samsung are internationally famous and garnered South Korea's reputation for its quality electronics and other manufactured goods.[312] Its massive investment in education has taken the country from mass illiteracy to a major international technological powerhouse
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External Debt
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt which the residents of a country owe to foreign creditors; its complement is internal debt which is owed to domestic lenders. The debtors can be the government, corporations or citizens of that country. The debt includes money owed to private commercial banks, foreign governments, or international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Note that the use of gross liability figures greatly distorts the ratio for countries which contain major money centers such as the United Kingdom due to London's role as a financial capital
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List Of Countries By Public Debt
These are lists of countries by public debt, based on data from the CIA's World Factbook and the IMF. Net debt figure is the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.[further explanation needed] Gross government debt is the total amount of debt the government has issued and is the most relevant data for discussions of government default and debt ceilings. It is different from external debt, which includes the foreign currency liabilities of non-government entities. Net debt subtracts financial assets a government holds from the gross debt amount. Net debt would decrease by about one-third of GDP. The public debt relative information provided by national sources (CIA) is not always objective and true, given the fact that there is no independent research in these matters
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Caspian Sea

The world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan. In 1873, exploration and development of oil began in some of the largest fields known to exist in the world at that time on the Absheron PeninThe world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan. In 1873, exploration and development of oil began in some of the largest fields known to exist in the world at that time on the Absheron Peninsula near the villages of Balakhanli, Sabunchi, Ramana, and Bibi Heybat. Total recoverable reserves were more than 500 million tons. By 1900, Baku had more than 3,000 oil wells, 2,000 of which were producing at industrial levels. By the end of the 19th century, Baku became known as the "black gold capital", and many skilled workers and specialists flocked to the city. By the beginning of the 20th century, Baku was the centre of international oil industry
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Intensive Agriculture

Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture, both of crop plants and of animals, with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour, and higher crop yields per unit land area.[1] Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Forms that rely heavily on industrial methods are often called industrial agriculture, which is characterised by innovations designed to increase yield. Techniques include planting multiple crops per year, reducing the frequency of fallow years, and improving cultivars
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