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Economic Determinism
ECONOMIC DETERMINISM is a theory that economic relationships (such as being an owner or capitalist , or being a worker or proletarian) are the foundation upon which all other social and political arrangements in society are based. The theory stresses that societies are divided into competing economic classes whose relative political power is determined by the nature of the economic system. In the version associated with Karl Marx , the emphasis is on the proletariat who are considered to be locked in a class struggle with the capitalist class, which will eventually end with the revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist system and the gradual development of socialism . Marxist thinkers have dismissed plain and unilateral economic determinism as a form of "vulgar Marxism", or "economism ", nowhere included in Marx's works. In the writing of American history the term is associated with historian Charles A. Beard (1874–1948), who was not a Marxist but who emphasized the long-term political contest between bankers and business interest on the one hand, and agrarian interests on the other
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Marxism
MARXISM is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Marxist methodology originally used a method of economic and sociopolitical inquiry known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. According to Marxist perspective, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between the highly productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat , and the private ownership and appropriation of the surplus product (profit) by a small minority of the population who are private owners called the bourgeoisie . The contradiction, between the forces and relations of production intensifies leading to crisis
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Marxist Bibliography
MARXISM is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development , and a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and applies that to the critique and analysis of the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. This is a MARXIST BIBLIOGRAPHY sorted by author. CONTENTS * 1 Marxist bibliography * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links MARXIST BIBLIOGRAPHY AUTHOR BIBLIOGRAPHY Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820 – 1895) Main pages: Category:Books by Karl Marx and Category:Books by Friedrich Engels See also: Marxism Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924) Main articles: Vladimir Lenin bibliography and Category:Works by Vladimir Lenin See also: Leninism and Marxism- Leninism Lenin was a prolific political theoretician and philosopher who wrote about the practical aspects of carrying out a proletarian revolution ; he wrote pamphlets, articles, and books, without a stenographer or secretary, until prevented by illness. He simultaneously corresponded with comrades, allies, and friends, in Russia and world-wide
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Economic And Philosophic Manuscripts Of 1844
_ECONOMIC AND PHILOSOPHIC MANUSCRIPTS OF 1844_ (also referred to as _THE PARIS MANUSCRIPTS_) are a series of notes written between April and August 1844 by Karl Marx . Not published by Marx during his lifetime, they were first released in 1932 by researchers in the Soviet Union . CONTENTS * 1 Context * 2 Themes * 2.1 Money and alienated man * 2.2 Alienation * 2.3 Labour and wage labour * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 External links CONTEXTThe notebooks are an early expression of Marx's analysis of economics, chiefly Adam Smith , and critique of the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel . The notebooks cover a wide range of topics including private property , communism , and money . They are best known for their early expression of Marx's argument that the conditions of modern industrial societies result in the estrangement (or alienation ) of wage-workers from their own life activity/work. Because the 1844 manuscripts show Marx's thought at the time of its early genesis, their publication, in English not until 1959, has profoundly affected recent scholarship on Marx and Marxism , particularly regarding the relation of Marxism to earlier work in German Idealism . The young Marx had been relatively ignored until recently, because his early works were considered more "philosophical" and by some as not "scientific" enough, that is, "economic" as in _Das Kapital _
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Theses On Feuerbach
The "THESES ON FEUERBACH" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book _ The German Ideology _ in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels . The document is best remembered for the epigrammatic 11th thesis and final line: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Content * 1.3 Publication history * 1.4 Uses of the text * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDIn February 1845 Karl Marx was deported from France at the behest of minister of foreign affairs François Guizot . Marx found sanctuary in Brussels , where he was joined for a number of months by his political compatriot Frederick Engels beginning in April of that same year. It was in Brussels that Marx first began to shape the concept of historical materialism — the idea that underlying fundamental changes in political history was a corresponding economic struggle between ruling and oppressed classes which was at root of these structural transformations
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The German Ideology
THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1846. Marx and Engels did not find a publisher, but the work was later retrieved and published for the first time in 1932 by David Riazanov through the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow
Moscow
. The multi-part book consists of many satirically written polemics against Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
, other Young Hegelians , and Max Stirner 's The Ego and Its Own (1844). Part I, however, is a work of exposition giving the appearance of being the work for which the "Theses on Feuerbach " served as an outline. The work is a restatement of the theory of history Marx was beginning to call the "materialist conception of history ". Since its first publication, Marxist scholars have found the work particularly valuable since it is perhaps the most comprehensive statement of Marx\'s theory of history stated at such length and detail. CONTENTS * 1 Text * 2 General outline * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TEXT The first page of the manuscript (written by Marx) The text itself was written by Marx and Engels in Brussels in 1845 and 1846 but it was not published until 1932. The Preface and some of the alterations and additions are in Marx's hand
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The Communist Manifesto
_THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO_ (originally _MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY_) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London (in German as _Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei_) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the _Manifesto_ was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The _Communist Manifesto_ summarises Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism . CONTENTS * 1 Synopsis * 2 Writing * 3 Publication * 3.1 Initial publication and obscurity, 1848–72 * 3.2 Rise, 1872–1917 * 3.3 Ubiquity, 1917–present * 4 Legacy * 5 Influences on _The Communist Manifesto_ * 6 References * 7 Source text * 8 Footnotes * 9 External links SYNOPSISThe _Communist Manifesto_ is divided into a preamble and four sections, the last of these a short conclusion
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The Eighteenth Brumaire Of Louis Napoleon
_THE EIGHTEENTH BRUMAIRE OF LOUIS NAPOLEON_ (German : _Der 18te Brumaire des Louis Napoleon_) was an essay written by Karl Marx between December 1851 and March 1852, and originally published in 1852 in _Die Revolution_, a German monthly magazine published in New York City and established by Joseph Weydemeyer . Later English editions, such as an 1869 Hamburg edition, were entitled _THE EIGHTEENTH BRUMAIRE OF LOUIS BONAPARTE_. The essay discusses the French coup of 1851 in which Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte assumed dictatorial powers. It shows Marx in his form as a social and political historian, treating actual historical events from the viewpoint of his materialist conception of history . The title refers to the Coup of 18 Brumaire in which Napoleon Bonaparte seized power in revolutionary France (9 November 1799, or 18 Brumaire Year VIII in the French Republican Calendar ). CONTENTS * 1 Contents of the book * 2 Impact on the development of Marxism * 3 "History repeats ..
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Grundrisse
The _GRUNDRISSE DER KRITIK DER POLITISCHEN ÖKONOMIE_ (_Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism_) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx . The series of seven notebooks were rough-drafted by Marx, chiefly for purposes of self-clarification, during the winter of 1857-8. Left aside by Marx in 1858, it remained unpublished until 1939. CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Dissemination * 3 The _Grundrisse\'_s influence * 4 Footnotes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links CONTENTSThe _Grundrisse_ is very wide-ranging in subject matter and covers all six sections of Marx's economics (of which only one, the first volume of _ Das Kapital _, ever reached a final form). It is often described as the rough draft of _Das Kapital_, although there is considerable disagreement about the exact relationship between the two texts, particularly around the issue of methodology
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
_A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY_ (German : _Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie_) is a book by Karl Marx , first published in 1859. The book is mainly an analysis of capitalism and quantity theory of money , achieved by critiquing the writings of the leading theoretical exponents of capitalism at that time: these were the political economists , nowadays often referred to as the classical economists ; Adam Smith (1723–90) and David Ricardo (1772–1823) are the foremost representatives of the genre. CONTENTS * 1 Significance * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 References SIGNIFICANCEMuch of the _Critique_ was later incorporated by Marx into his magnum opus, _Capital_ (Volume I) , published in 1867, and the _Critique_ is generally considered to be of secondary importance among Marx's writings. This does not apply, however, to the Preface of the _Critique_. It contains the first connected account of one of Marx's main theories: the economic interpretation of history . Briefly, this is the idea that economic factors – the way people produce the necessities of life – conditions the kind of politics and ideology a society can have: "The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond (_entsprechen_) definite forms of social consciousness
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Das Kapital
_CAPITAL: CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY_ (German : _Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie_, pronounced ; 1867–1883) by Karl Marx is a foundational theoretical text in communist philosophy, economics and politics. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production , in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith , Jean-Baptiste Say , David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill . CONTENTS * 1 Themes * 2 Synopsis * 2.1 _Capital, Volume I_ * 2.2 _Capital, Volume II_ * 2.3 _Capital, Volume III_ * 3 Intellectual influences * 4 _Capital, Volume IV_ * 5 Publication * 6 Translations * 7 See also * 8 Online editions * 8.1 Volumes * 8.2 Synopses * 9 Footnotes * 10 Further reading * 11 External links THEMES _ This article POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (October 2012)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_In _Capital: Critique of Political Economy_ (1867), Marx proposes that the motivating force of capitalism is in the exploitation of labour , whose unpaid work is the ultimate source of surplus value . The owner of the means of production is able to claim the right to this surplus value because he or she is legally protected by the ruling regime , through property rights
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Dialectics Of Nature
_DIALECTICS OF NATURE_ (German : _Dialektik der Natur_) is an unfinished 1883 work by Friedrich Engels that applies Marxist ideas – particularly those of dialectical materialism – to science. HISTORY AND CONTENTSIn his 1939 preface to the work, the biologist J. B. S. Haldane states "most of the manuscript seems to have been written between 1872 and 1882, that is to say it refers to the science" of that era. "Hence it is often hard to follow if one does not know the history of the scientific practice of that time. The idea of what is now called the conservation of energy was beginning to permeate physics, chemistry and biology, but it was still very incompletely realised, and still more incompletely applied. Words such as 'force', 'motion', and 'vis viva' were used where we should now speak of energy". Some then controversial topics of Engels' day, pertaining to incomplete or faulty theories, are now settled, making some of Engels' essays dated. "Their interest lies not so much in their detailed criticism of theories, but in showing how Engels grappled with intellectual problems". One "law" proposed in the _Dialectics of Nature_ is the "law of the transformation of quantity into quality and _vice versa_". Probably the most commonly cited example of this is the change of water from a liquid to a gas, by increasing its temperature (although Engels also describes other examples from chemistry)
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Marxist Philosophy
MARXIST PHILOSOPHY or MARXIST THEORY are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx 's materialist approach to theory , or works written by Marxists . Marxist philosophy may be broadly divided into Western Marxism , which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union , which enforced a rigid reading of Marx called dialectical materialism , in particular during the 1930s. Marxist philosophy is not a strictly defined sub-field of philosophy, because the diverse influence of Marxist theory has extended into fields as varied as aesthetics , ethics , ontology , epistemology , theoretical psychology and philosophy of science , as well as its obvious influence on political philosophy and the philosophy of history . The key characteristics of Marxism in philosophy are its materialism and its commitment to political practice as the end goal of all thought. Marxist theorist Louis Althusser , for example, defined philosophy as "class struggle in theory", thus radically separating himself from those who claimed philosophers could adopt a "God\'s eye view " as a purely neutral judge
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Dialectical Logic
DIALECTICAL LOGIC is the system of laws of thought, developed within the Hegelian and Marxist traditions, which seeks to supplement or replace the laws of formal logic . The precise nature of the relation between dialectical and formal logic was hotly debated within the Soviet Union and China. Contrasting with the abstract formalism of traditional logic, dialectical logic in the Marxist sense was developed as the logic of motion and change and used to examine concrete forms. It is a materialist approach to logic, drawing on the objective, material world. Stalin argued in his Marxism and Problems of Linguistics that there was no class content to formal logic and that it was an acceptable neutral science. This led to the insistence that there were not two logics, but only formal logic. The analogy used was the relation of elementary and higher mathematics. Dialectical logic was hence concerned with a different area of study from that of formal logic. The main consensus among dialecticians is that dialectics do not violate the law of contradiction of formal logic, although attempts have been made to create a paraconsistent logic . Some Soviet philosophers argued that the materialist dialectic could be seen in the mathematical logic of Bertrand Russell; however, this was criticized by Deborin and the Deborinists as panlogicism
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Dialectical Materialism
DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM (sometimes abbreviated DIAMAT) is a philosophy of science and nature , based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels , and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet Union . Inspired by dialectic and materialist philosophical traditions, it accepts evolution of the natural world and the emergence of new qualities of being at new stages of evolution. As Z. A. Jordan notes, "Engels made constant use of the metaphysical insight that the higher level of existence emerges from and has its roots in the lower; that the higher level constitutes a new order of being with its irreducible laws; and that this process of evolutionary advance is governed by laws of development which reflect basic properties of 'matter in motion as a whole'." The formulation of the Soviet version of dialectical and historical materialism in the 1930s by Joseph Stalin and his associates (such as in Stalin's book Dialectical and Historical Materialism ) became the "official" Soviet interpretation of Marxism . It was codified and popularized in text books which were required reading in the Soviet Union as well as some Eastern European countries. It was exported to China
China
as the "official" interpretation of Marxism but has since been widely rejected in China
China
in the Soviet formulation
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Historical Determinism
HISTORICAL DETERMINISM is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism ) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions
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