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Economic Determinism
ECONOMIC DETERMINISM is a theory that economic relationships (such as being an owner or capitalist , or being a worker or proletarian) are the foundation upon which all other social and political arrangements in society are based. The theory stresses that societies are divided into competing economic classes whose relative political power is determined by the nature of the economic system. In the version associated with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, the emphasis is on the proletariat who are considered to be locked in a class struggle with the capitalist class, which will eventually end with the revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist system and the gradual development of socialism . Marxist thinkers have dismissed plain and unilateral economic determinism as a form of "vulgar Marxism", or "economism ", nowhere included in Marx's works. In the writing of American history the term is associated with historian Charles A. Beard
Charles A

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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, first published in 1859. The book is mainly an analysis of capitalism and quantity theory of money , achieved by critiquing the writings of the leading theoretical exponents of capitalism at that time: these were the political economists , nowadays often referred to as the classical economists ; Adam Smith (1723–90) and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
(1772–1823) are the foremost representatives of the genre. CONTENTS * 1 Significance * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 References SIGNIFICANCEMuch of the Critique was later incorporated by Marx into his magnum opus, Capital
Capital
(Volume I) , published in 1867, and the Critique is generally considered to be of secondary importance among Marx's writings. This does not apply, however, to the Preface of the Critique
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Das Kapital
CAPITAL: CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, pronounced ; 1867–1883) by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
is a foundational theoretical text in communist philosophy, economics and politics. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production , in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith , Jean-Baptiste Say , David Ricardo
David Ricardo
and John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill

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Capital (economics)
In economics , CAPITAL consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. CAPITAL GOODS, REAL CAPITAL, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services . Adam Smith defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510. How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable. It is also possible that advances make an obsolete form of capital practical again
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Private Property
PRIVATE PROPERTY is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities . Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property , which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative ) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities . Private property
Private property
is further distinguished from personal property , which refers to property for personal use and consumption. Private property
Private property
is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economics * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Gate with a private property sign. Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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The Communist Manifesto
THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (originally MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms
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Working Class
The WORKING CLASS (also LABOURING CLASS and PROLETARIAT ) are the people employed for wages , especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most service-work jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour , thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies , of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies , and of the rural workforce. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat, and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers ) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature)
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Theses On Feuerbach
The "THESES ON FEUERBACH" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. The document is best remembered for the epigrammatic 11th thesis and final line: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Content * 1.3 Publication history * 1.4 Uses of the text * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDIn February 1845 Karl Marx
Karl Marx
was deported from France at the behest of minister of foreign affairs François Guizot
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Class In Marxist Theory
In Marxism, MARXIAN CLASS THEORY asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position. A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests. Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Bourgeoisie
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Polit
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Marxist Sociology
MARXIST SOCIOLOGY is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective. Marxism itself can be recognized as both a political philosophy and a sociology , particularly so far as it attempts to remain scientific, systematic and objective rather than purely normative and prescriptive. Marxist sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical ) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class ." The American Sociological Association has a section dedicated to the issues of Marxist sociology that is "interested in examining how insights from Marxist methodology and Marxist analysis can help explain the complex dynamics of modern society". Marxist sociology would come to facilitate the developments of critical theory and cultural studies as loosely distinct disciplines
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Surplus Product
SURPLUS PRODUCT (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy . Marx first began to work out his idea of surplus product in his 1844 notes on James Mill 's Elements of political economy. Notions of "surplus produce" have been used in economic thought and commerce for a long time (notably by the Physiocrats ), but in Das Kapital , Theories of Surplus Value and the Grundrisse Marx gave the concept a central place in his interpretation of economic history. Nowadays the concept is mainly used in Marxian economics
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole
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Marx's Theory Of Alienation
KARL MARX\'S THEORY OF ALIENATION describes the estrangement (Ger. Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes . The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. The theoretic basis of alienation, within the capitalist mode of production , is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define relationships with other people; and to own those items of value from goods and services, produced by their own labour
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