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Economic And Philosophic Manuscripts Of 1844
ECONOMIC AND PHILOSOPHIC MANUSCRIPTS OF 1844 (also referred to as THE PARIS MANUSCRIPTS) are a series of notes written between April and August 1844 by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. Not published by Marx during his lifetime, they were first released in 1932 by researchers in the Soviet Union . CONTENTS * 1 Context * 2 Themes * 2.1 Money
Money
and alienated man * 2.2 Alienation * 2.3 Labour and wage labour * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 External links CONTEXTThe notebooks are an early expression of Marx's analysis of economics, chiefly Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, and critique of the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel . The notebooks cover a wide range of topics including private property , communism , and money
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Marx's Theory Of Alienation
KARL MARX\'S THEORY OF ALIENATION describes the estrangement (Ger. Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes . The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. The theoretic basis of alienation, within the capitalist mode of production , is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define relationships with other people; and to own those items of value from goods and services, produced by their own labour
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Marxist Sociology
MARXIST SOCIOLOGY is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective. Marxism itself can be recognized as both a political philosophy and a sociology , particularly so far as it attempts to remain scientific, systematic and objective rather than purely normative and prescriptive. Marxist sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical ) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class ." The American Sociological Association has a section dedicated to the issues of Marxist sociology that is "interested in examining how insights from Marxist methodology and Marxist analysis can help explain the complex dynamics of modern society". Marxist sociology would come to facilitate the developments of critical theory and cultural studies as loosely distinct disciplines
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Base And Superstructure
In Marxist theory , human society consists of two parts: the BASE (or SUBSTRUCTURE) and SUPERSTRUCTURE; the base comprises the forces and relations of production —employer–employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations—into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society’s other relationships and ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture , institutions , political power structures , roles , rituals , and state . The base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism , the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship
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Bourgeoisie
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Polit
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Class In Marxist Theory
In Marxism, MARXIAN CLASS THEORY asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position. A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests. Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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Value-form
The VALUE-FORM or FORM OF VALUE (German : Wertform) is a concept in Karl Marx 's critique of political economy, Marxism and post-Marxism . It refers to the social form of a commodity (any product traded in markets) as a symbol of value, which contrasts with its physical features, as a product which can satisfy some human need. The physical appearance of a commodity is directly observable, but the meaning of its social form is not. Narrating the paradoxical oddities and metaphysical niceties of ordinary things when they become instruments of trade, Marx seeks to provide a brief morphology of the category of economic value as such - what its substance really is, the forms which this substance takes, and how its magnitude is determined or expressed
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Scientific Socialism
SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM is the term first used by Friedrich Engels to describe the social-political-economic theory first pioneered by Karl Marx . The purported reason why this form of socialism is "scientific socialism" (as opposed to "utopian socialism ") is that it is said to be based on the scientific method , in that its theories are held to an empirical standard, observations are essential to its development, and these can result in changes and/or falsification of elements of the theory. Although the term socialism has come to mean specifically a combination of political and economic science, it is also applicable to a broader area of science encompassing what is now considered sociology and the humanities . The distinction between utopian and scientific socialism originated with Marx, who criticized the utopian characteristics of French socialism and English and Scottish political economy
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole
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Surplus Product
SURPLUS PRODUCT (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy . Marx first began to work out his idea of surplus product in his 1844 notes on James Mill 's Elements of political economy. Notions of "surplus produce" have been used in economic thought and commerce for a long time (notably by the Physiocrats ), but in Das Kapital , Theories of Surplus Value and the Grundrisse Marx gave the concept a central place in his interpretation of economic history. Nowadays the concept is mainly used in Marxian economics
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Surplus Value
SURPLUS VALUE is a central concept in Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy. Marx did not himself invent the term: he developed the concept. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx's use of this concept is different, because for Marx, the Mehrwert refers to the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital. Hence, Marx's use of Mehrwert has always been translated as "surplus value", distinguishing it from "value-added". According to Marx's theory, surplus value is equal to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labor-cost, which is appropriated by the capitalist as profit when products are sold
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Class Consciousness
CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS is a term used in political theory , particularly Marxism , to refer to the beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests. It is an awareness that is key to sparking a revolution that would, "create a dictatorship of the proletariat , transforming it from a wage-earning, property-less mass into the ruling class" according to Karl Marx
Karl Marx

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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Private Property
PRIVATE PROPERTY is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities . Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property , which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative ) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities . Private property
Private property
is further distinguished from personal property , which refers to property for personal use and consumption. Private property
Private property
is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economics * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Gate with a private property sign. Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Proletariat
The PROLETARIAT (/ˌproʊlᵻˈtɛəri.ət/ from Latin
Latin
proletarius) is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power (their ability to work). A member of such a class is a PROLETARIAN. CONTENTS * 1 Proletarii of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
* 2 Marxist theory * 3 Prole drift * 4 See also * 5 Reference notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links PROLETARII OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Further information: Constitution of the Roman Republic The proletarii constituted a social class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. The origin of the name is presumably linked with the census , which Roman authorities conducted every five years to produce a register of citizens and their property from which their military duties and voting privileges could be determined
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