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Echinoderms
Homalozoa
Homalozoa
† Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea
Homostelea
† Homoiostelea †
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Blastozoa
Blastozoa
Blastozoa
is a subphylum of extinct animals belonging to Phylum Echinodermata. This subphylum is characterized by the presence of specialized respiratory structures and brachiole plates used for feeding.[1] This subphylum ranged from the Cambrian
Cambrian
to the Permian. References[edit]^ Sprinkle, J. (1973). "Morphology and evolution of blastozoan echinoderms". Harvard Special
Special
Publication: Museum of Comparative Zoology. External links[edit]Harvard: Subphylum BlastozoaTaxon identifiersWd: Q3234855 ADW: Blastozoa EoL: 42356097 Fossilworks: 120078This prehistoric echinoderm-related article is a stub
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Crinozoa
Crinozoa
Crinozoa
is a subphylum of mostly sessile echinoderms, of which the crinoids, or sea lilies, are the only extant members. Crinozoans have an extremely extensive fossil history which may or may not extend into the Precambrian
Precambrian
(provided the enigmatic Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Arkarua
Arkarua
can be positively identified as an edrioasteroid). Classes within Crinozoa[edit] The classes currently contained within Crinozoa
Crinozoa
include Crinoidea, Cystoidea, Edrioasteroidea, Rhombifera, and Paracrinoidea. See also[edit]List of echinoderm orders Blastoids, superficially similar-appearing echinoderms that belong to a different echinoderm subphylum.References[edit]Taxon identifiersWd: Q2503841 EoL: 4717952 ITIS: 158540 WoRMS: 147423This prehistoric echinoderm-related article is a stub
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Crinoidea
Articulata (540 species) †Flexibilia †Camerata †DisparidaCrinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea
Crinoidea
of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). The name comes from the Greek word krinon, "a lily", and eidos, "form".[3][4] They live in both shallow water[5] and in depths as great as 9,000 meters (30,000 ft).[6] Those crinoids which in their adult form are attached to the sea bottom by a stalk are commonly called sea lilies.[7] The unstalked forms are called feather stars[8] or comatulids.[9] Crinoids are characterised by a mouth on the top surface that is surrounded by feeding arms. They have a U-shaped gut, and their anus is located next to the mouth. Although the basic echinoderm pattern of fivefold symmetry can be recognised, most crinoids have many more than five arms
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Edrioasteroidea
See text Edrioasteroidea
Edrioasteroidea
is an extinct class of echinoderms. The living animal would have resembled a pentamerously symmetrical disc or cushion. They were obligate encrusters and attached themselves to inorganic or biologic hard substrates (frequently hardgrounds or brachiopods).[1] The oldest undisputed fossils of Edrioasteroidea
Edrioasteroidea
are known from Cambrian
Cambrian
(Stage 3, about 515-520 Ma ago) of Laurentia
Laurentia
and are among the oldest known fossils of echinoderms
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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Asterozoa
Asteroidea Ophiuroidea
Ophiuroidea
[1] Somasteroidea ?The Asterozoa
Asterozoa
are a subphylum in the phylum Echinodermata. Characteristics include a star-shaped body and radially divergent axes of symmetry. The subphylum includes the two classes Asteroidea, the starfish, and Ophiuroidea, the brittle stars and basket stars, and the extinct order Somasteroidea.Contents1 Taxonomy1.1 Asteroidea 1.2 Ophiuroidea 1.3 Somasteroidea2 ReferencesTaxonomy[edit] See also: List of echinoderm orders Asteroidea[edit] Starfish
Starfish
fossil, Riedaster reicheliMembers of the order Asteroidea are characterised by a star-shaped body plan consisting of a central disc and multiple radiating arms. They usually exhibit pentamerous radial symmetry, but some species typically have a symmetry based on a number other than five
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Echinozoa
† = Extinct Echinozoa
Echinozoa
is a subphylum of free-living echinoderms in which the body is essentially globoid with meridional symmetry. Echinozoans lack arms, brachioles, or other appendages, and do not at any time exhibit pinnate structure.[1] See also[edit] List of echinodermata orders. References[edit]^ http://www.answers.com/topic/echinozoa-1Taxon identifiersWd: Q2698547 ADW: Echinozoa ITIS: 157820 NCBI: 7624 WoRMS: 148744This echinoderm-related article is a stub
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Blastoidea
Fissiculata Spiraculata Incertae sedis: †Macurdablastus"Blastoidea", from Ernst Haeckel's Art Forms of Nature, 1904Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm.[1] Often called sea buds, blastoid fossils look like small hickory nuts. They first appear, along with many other echinoderm classes, in the Ordovician
Ordovician
period, and reached their greatest diversity in the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period. However, blastoids may have originated in the Cambrian. Blastoids persisted until their extinction at the end of Permian, about 250 million years ago
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Homostelea
Homostelea
Homostelea
is an extinct class of echinoderms that lived only in the Middle Cambrian era.[1] References[edit]^ http://muzeum.geology.cz/d.pl?item=164&l=eThis prehistoric echinoderm-related article is a stub
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Otto Jaekel
Otto Max Johannes Jaekel (21 February 1863 – 6 March 1929) was a German paleontologist and geologist. Jaekel was born in Neusalz (Nowa Sól), Prussian Silesia. He studied geology and paleontology in Liegnitz (Legnica). After graduating in 1883, he moved to Breslau (Wrocław) and studied under Ferdinand Roemer until 1885. Karl von Zittel
Karl von Zittel
awarded a PhD to Jaekel in Munich in 1886. Between 1887 bis 1889, Jaekel was an assistant of E.W. Benecke at Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut in Straßburg, and worked in Berlin
Berlin
and at the Geologisch-Paläontologisches Museum beginning 1894. Jaekel relocated to the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
in 1903, but his imminent professorship was blocked by Viennese geologists. Between 1906 and 1928, Jaekel was a professor at the University of Greifswald,[1] where he founded the German Paleontological Society in 1912
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Paracrinoid
Paracrinoidea
Paracrinoidea
is an extinct class of blastozoan echinoderms. They lived in shallow seas during the Early Ordovician
Ordovician
through the Early Silurian. While blastozoans are usually characterized by types of respiratory structures present, it is not clear what types of respiratory structures paracrinoids likely had. Despite its name, the paracrinoids are not closely related to crinoids. Paracrinoids are characterized by a mouth with two to five feeding arms arranged asymmetrically, or somewhat bisymmetrically. They have a U-shaped gut, and their anus is located next to the mouth. They have irregularly shaped bodies (theca), and a stem, superficially similar to crinoids, and may have used the stem to attach themselves to a substrate, although some reconstructions show them partially buried in sediment.[1] Only 13 to 15 genera are known
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Radial Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry
in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism. In nature and biology, symmetry is always approximate. For example, plant leaves – while considered symmetrical – rarely match up exactly when folded in half. Symmetry
Symmetry
creates a class of patterns in nature, where the near-repetition of the pattern element is by reflection or rotation. The body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, whether radial, bilateral, or spherical
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Sand Dollar
See text.The term sand dollar (also known as a sea cookie or snapper biscuit in New Zealand, or pansy shell in South Africa) refers to species of extremely flattened, burrowing sea urchins belonging to the order Clypeasteroida. Some species within the order, not quite as flat, are known as sea biscuits. Related animals include other sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and starfish.Contents1 Anatomy 2 Suborders and families 3 Common Name 4 Lifestyle and habitat 5 Evolution 6 Folklore 7 References 8 External linksAnatomy[edit]Leodia sexiesperforata by Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz
(1841)Examples of RotulidaeEncope emarginata (aboral and oral faces) by Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(1904)Clypeaster rosaceus, ibid Sand
Sand
dollars, like all members of the order Clypeasteroida, possess a rigid skeleton known as a test
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