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Echinochloa
Echinochloa
Echinochloa
is a very widespread genus of plants in the grass family.[3][4][5] Some of the species are known by the common names barnyard grass or cockspur grass.[6][7] Some of whose members of the genus are millets grown as cereal or fodder crops. The most notable of these are Japanese millet (E. esculenta) in East Asia, Indian barnyard millet (E. frumentacea) in South Asia, and burgu millet (E. stagnina) in West Africa. Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses (though this may also refer to E. crus-galli specifically), barnyard millets or billion-dollar grasses. When not grown on purpose, these grasses may become a nuisance to farmers. In particular, common barnyard grass (E. crus-galli) is notorious as a weed.[8] It is not easily suppressed with living mulches such as velvet bean ( Mucuna pruriens
Mucuna pruriens
var. utilis).[9] Early barnyard grass (E
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Paspalidium
Paspalidium
Paspalidium
(watercrown grass) is a genus of tropical and subtropical plants in the grass family.[2][1][3] Paspalidium
Paspalidium
includes about 40 species native to tropical and subtropi
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Cereal
Cereal
Cereal
is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal
Cereal
grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop[1] and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat (Polygonaceae), quinoa (Amaranthaceae) and chia (Lamiaceae), are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural form (as in whole grain), cereals are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance
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Jalisco
^ a. The state's GDP
GDP
was 566,809,524 million of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 44,281,994.06 million of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8] b. The state's flag was officially adopted in 2007[9] Jalisco
Jalisco
(/həˈlɪskoʊ/; Spanish: [xaˈlisko]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco
Jalisco
(Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco
Jalisco
[esˈtaðo ˈliβɾe i soβeˈɾano ðe xaˈlisko]), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico
Mexico
and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacan
Michoacan
and Colima. Jalisco
Jalisco
is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara
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Host (biology)
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter. Examples include animals playing host to parasitic worms (e.g. nematodes), cells harbouring pathogenic (disease-causing) viruses, a bean plant hosting mutualistic (helpful) nitrogen-fixing bacteria. More specifically in botany, a host plant supplies food resources to micropredators, which have an evolutionarily stable relationship with their hosts similar to ectoparasitism
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Biological Pest Control
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.[1] It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. There are three basic strategies for biological pest control: classical (importation), where a natural enemy of a pest is introduced in the hope of achieving control; inductive (augmentation), in which a large population of natural enemies are administered for quick pest control; and inoculative (conservation), in which measures are taken to maintain natural enemies through regular reestablishment.[2] Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists
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Natural Reservoir
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. A reservoir is usually a living host of a certain species, such as an animal or a plant, inside of which a pathogen survives, often (though not always) without causing disease for the reservoir itself. By some definitions a reservoir may also be an environment external to an organism, such as a volume of contaminated air or water.[1][2] Because of the enormous variety of infectious microorganisms capable of causing disease, precise definitions for what constitutes a natural reservoir are numerous, various, and often conflicting
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Sac Fungus
Ascomycota
Ascomycota
is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are commonly known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species.[2] The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
are asexual, meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores
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Plant Pathogen
Plant
Plant
pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).[1] Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by consumption of plant tissues
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Weed Control
Weed
Weed
control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas. Weed
Weed
control is important in agriculture. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants
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Evolution
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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Mucuna Pruriens
Mucuna
Mucuna
pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated.[2] Its English common names include velvet bean, Bengal velvet bean, Florida
Florida
velvet bean, Mauritius velvet bean, Yokohama velvet bean, cowage, cowitch, lacuna bean, and Lyon bean.[2] The plant is notorious for the extreme itchiness it produces on contact,[3] particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods
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West Africa
West
West
Africa, also called Western Africa
Africa
and the West
West
of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Acroceras
Acroceras is a genus of tropical and subtropical plants in the grass family.[2][3][4][5] The genus is widespread across warmer parts of Asia, Africa, and the Americas, with a high amount of diversity in Madagascar.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12]Species[1] Acroceras amplectens Acroceras attenuatum Acroceras
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