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Ecclesiastical Province
An ECCLESIASTICAL PROVINCE is a general term for one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian
Christian
Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity
Christianity
and Eastern Christianity
Christianity
. In general, ecclesiastical province is consisted of several dioceses (or eparchies ), one of them being the archdiocese (or archeparchy ), headed by metropolitan bishop or archbishop who has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over all other bishops of the province. In the Greco-Roman world, _ecclesia_ (Greek ἐκκλησίᾱ, _ekklēsiā_ ( Latin
Latin
ecclesia) meaning "congregation, church") was used to refer to a lawful assembly, or a called legislative body. As early as Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, the word took on the additional meaning of a community with shared beliefs. This is the meaning taken in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures
Hebrew Scriptures
(the Septuagint ), and later adopted by the Christian
Christian
community to refer to the assembly of believers
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Western Christianity
WESTERN CHRISTIANITY is a term referring to the scope of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
. Western Christianity
Christianity
consists of the Latin Church
Latin Church
of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(in contrast to the Eastern churches in communion with Rome
Rome
), the Waldensians , Hussites
Hussites
, and a wide variety of Protestant denominations , including Anglicanism , Anabaptism
Anabaptism
, Calvinism , Lutheranism , and others. The name is applied in order to distinguish these from Eastern Christianity
Christianity
. Western Christianity
Christianity
initially developed in Europe
Europe
during the first centuries AD
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Eastern Christianity
EASTERN CHRISTIANITY consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox churches , the Assyrian Church of the East , and the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain an Eastern liturgy ). The term is used in contrast with Western Christianity (namely the Latin Church and Protestantism ). Eastern Christianity consists of the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor , the Balkans , Southern India and parts of the Far East over several centuries. The term does not describe a single communion or religious denomination . Some Eastern churches have more in common historically and theologically with Western Christianity than with one another. The various Eastern churches do not normally refer to themselves as "Eastern", with the exception of the Assyrian Church of the East and its offshoots
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Diocese
The word DIOCESE (/ˈdaɪ.ə.sɪs/ ) is derived from the Greek term _διοίκησις_ meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes. This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity . The word DIOCESAN means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. A diocese also may be referred to as a _BISHOPRIC_ or _episcopal see _, though strictly the term _episcopal see_ refers to the domain of ecclesiastical authority officially held by the bishop, and the term _bishopric_ to the post of being bishop. An ARCHDIOCESE (or ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE or ARCHBISHOPRIC) is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have metropolitan authority over any other suffragan bishops and their dioceses within his ecclesiastical province
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Eparchy
EPARCHY is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as _EPARCHIA_, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory. It has specific meanings both in politics, history and in the hierarchy of the Eastern Christian churches. IN SECULAR USE, the word eparchy denotes an administrative district in the Roman / Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, or in modern Greece
Greece
or Cyprus
Cyprus
. IN ECCLESIASTICAL USE, an eparchy is a territorial diocese governed by a bishop of one of the Eastern churches , who holds the title of eparch. It is part of a metropolis . Each eparchy is divided into parishes in the same manner as a diocese of western Christendom. In the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, an archieparchy equivalent to an archdiocese of the Roman Rite and its bishop is an archieparch, equivalent to an archbishop of the Roman Rite
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Archdiocese
The word DIOCESE (/ˈdaɪ.ə.sɪs/ ) is derived from the Greek term _διοίκησις_ meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes. This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity . The word DIOCESAN means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. A diocese also may be referred to as a _BISHOPRIC_ or _episcopal see _, though strictly the term _episcopal see_ refers to the domain of ecclesiastical authority officially held by the bishop, and the term _bishopric_ to the post of being bishop. An ARCHDIOCESE (or ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE or ARCHBISHOPRIC) is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have metropolitan authority over any other suffragan bishops and their dioceses within his ecclesiastical province
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Archeparchy
EPARCHY is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as _EPARCHIA_, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory. It has specific meanings both in politics, history and in the hierarchy of the Eastern Christian churches. IN SECULAR USE, the word eparchy denotes an administrative district in the Roman / Byzantine Empire , or in modern Greece or Cyprus
Cyprus
. IN ECCLESIASTICAL USE, an eparchy is a territorial diocese governed by a bishop of one of the Eastern churches , who holds the title of eparch. It is part of a metropolis . Each eparchy is divided into parishes in the same manner as a diocese of western Christendom. In the Catholic Church , an archieparchy equivalent to an archdiocese of the Roman Rite and its bishop is an archieparch, equivalent to an archbishop of the Roman Rite
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Metropolitan Bishop
In Christian
Christian
churches with episcopal polity , the rank of METROPOLITAN BISHOP, or simply METROPOLITAN, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called METROPOLITAN ARCHBISHOP); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province
Roman province
, ecclesiastical province , or regional capital. Before the establishment of patriarchs (beginning in AD 325), metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted special privileges by canon law and sacred tradition . The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city and its territory. The bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, later called suffragans
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Archbishop
In Christianity
Christianity
, an ARCHBISHOP (/ˌɑːrtʃˈbɪʃəp/ , via Latin _archiepiscopus_, from Greek ἀρχιεπίσκοπος, from ἀρχι-, "chief", and ἐπίσκοπος, "bishop") is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden , it is the denomination leader title. Like popes , patriarchs , metropolitans , cardinal bishops , diocesan bishops , and suffragan bishops , archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops, priests , also called presbyters , and deacons . An archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Pythagoras
PYTHAGORAS OF SAMOS (US : /pᵻˈθæɡərəs/ ; UK : /paɪˈθæɡərəs/ ; Greek : Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος _Pythagóras ho Sámios_ " Pythagoras the Samian ", or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek ; c. 570–495 BC) was an Ionian Greek philosopher , mathematician , and putative founder of the Pythagoreanism movement. He is often revered as a great mathematician and scientist and is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. Legend and obfuscation cloud his work, so it is uncertain whether he truly contributed much to mathematics or natural philosophy . Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues or successors. Some accounts mention that the philosophy associated with Pythagoras was related to mathematics and that numbers were important. It was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher, or lover of wisdom, and Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato , and through him, all of Western philosophy
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Hebrew Scriptures
Outline of Bible-related topics _ Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e Page from an 11th-century Aramaic Targum
Targum
_ manuscript of the Hebrew Bible. HEBREW BIBLE or HEBREW SCRIPTURES ( Latin
Latin
: _Biblia Hebraica_) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the _ Tanakh _ (Hebrew : תנ"ך‎‎; Latin
Latin
: _Thanach_), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
Old Testament
. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The content to which the Protestant Old Testament
Old Testament
closely corresponds does not act as a source for the deuterocanonical portions of the Roman Catholic or to the _ Anagignoskomena _ portions of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testaments. The term does not comment upon the naming, numbering or ordering of books, which varies with later Christian biblical canons . The term Hebrew Bible
Bible
is an attempt to provide specificity with respect to contents but avoid allusion to any particular interpretative tradition or theological school of thought
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Septuagint
Outline of Bible-related topics _ Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus _ c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation . The SEPTUAGINT (from the Latin _septuaginta_, "seventy") is a Koine Greek translation of a Hebraic textual tradition that included certain texts which were later included in the canonical Hebrew Bible and other related texts which were not. As the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament , it is also called the GREEK OLD TESTAMENT. This translation is quoted a number of times in the New Testament , particularly in Pauline epistles , and also by the Apostolic Fathers and later Greek Church Fathers . The title (Greek : Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα, lit. "The Translation of the Seventy") and its Roman numeral LXX refer to the legendary seventy Jewish scholars who solely translated the Five Books of Moses into Koine Greek as early as the 3rd century BCE. Separated from the Hebrew canon of the Jewish Bible in Rabbinic Judaism , translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only
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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe . There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin : _occidens_ "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient ). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe , Judaism and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel . In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the traditions of the Renaissance , Protestant Reformation , Age of Enlightenment – and shaped by the expansive imperialism and colonialism of the 15th to 20th centuries. Before the Cold War era, the traditional Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian ( Catholic - Protestant ) countries and culture. Its political usage was temporarily changed by the antagonism during the Cold War in the mid-to-late 20th Century (1947–1991). The term originally had a literal geographic meaning
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