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Ecclesiastical Polity
ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination
Christian denomination
. It also denotes the ministerial structure of a church and the authority relationships between churches. Polity relates closely to ecclesiology , the study of doctrine and theology relating to church organization
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Theology
THEOLOGY is the critical study of the nature of the divine . It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities, seminaries and schools of divinity
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Doctrine
DOCTRINE (from Latin : doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system . The Greek analogue is the etymology of catechism . Often doctrine specifically suggests a body of religious principles as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily; doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense , or the principle of fair use , or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine . In some organizations, doctrine is simply defined as "that which is taught", in other words the basis for institutional teaching of its personnel internal ways of doing business
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Minister Of Religion
In Christianity , a MINISTER is a person authorized by a church , or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings , baptisms or funerals ; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community. The term is taken from Latin minister ("servant", "attendant"), which itself was derived from minus ("less"). In Catholic churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasised. In Protestant
Protestant
churches, the title usually refers to a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a presbyter, pastor, preacher, bishop, chaplain or elder. Many ministers are styled as " The Reverend
The Reverend
"; however, some use " Pastor " as a title, and others do not use any specific form of address
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Christian Denomination
A CHRISTIAN DENOMINATION is a distinct religious body within Christianity
Christianity
, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine. Individual bodies, however, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship . Divisions between one group and another are defined by authority and doctrine; issues such as the nature of Jesus
Jesus
, the authority of apostolic succession , eschatology , and papal primacy may separate one denomination from another. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs, practices, and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity
Christianity
" or "denominational families". Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another
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Acts Of The Apostles
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ( Ancient Greek : Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Latin : Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as ACTS, is the fifth book of the New Testament ; it tells of the founding of the Christian
Christian
church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke–Acts , by the same anonymous author, usually dated to around 80–90 AD. The first part, the Gospel of Luke , tells how God fulfilled his plan for the world's salvation through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth
Jesus of Nazareth
, the promised Messiah
Messiah
. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century , beginning with Jesus's Ascension to Heaven
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Ascension Of Jesus Christ
PORTALS: Christianity
Christianity
Bible
Bible
Book:Life of Jesus
Jesus
* v * t * e The ASCENSION OF JESUS (anglicized from the Vulgate
Vulgate
Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ
Christ
from Earth into the presence of God . The narrative in Acts 1 takes place 40 days after the Resurrection : Jesus, in the company of the disciples, is taken up in their sight after warning them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
; as he ascends a cloud hides him from their view, and two men in white appear to tell them that he will return "in the same way you have seen him go into heaven." Stories of Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying divine approval or the deification of an exceptional man
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Protestant Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance · German mysticism
German mysticism
Start of the
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Judas Iscariot
JUDAS ISCARIOT (died c. 30–33 AD ) was one of the twelve original disciples of Jesus Christ and son of Simon Iscariot, according to the New Testament . Judas is known for the kiss and betrayal of Jesus
Jesus
to the Sanhedrin for thirty silver coins . His name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason. Though there are varied accounts of his death, the traditional version sees him as having hanged himself following the betrayal, as recorded in the Gospel of Matthew . His place among the Twelve Apostles was later filled by Matthias . Despite his notorious role in the Gospel narratives, Judas remains a controversial figure in Christian history. For instance, Judas' betrayal is seen as setting in motion the events that led to Jesus' Crucifixion and Resurrection which, according to traditional Christian theology , brought salvation to humanity
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Twelve Apostles
In Christian theology
Christian theology
and ecclesiology , the APOSTLES (Greek : ἀπόστολος, translit. apóstolos, lit. 'one who is sent away'), particularly the TWELVE APOSTLES (also called the TWELVE DISCIPLES), were the primary historical disciples of Jesus
Jesus
, the central figure in Christianity
Christianity
. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD , the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. The word disciple is sometimes used interchangeably with apostle; for instance, the Gospel of John makes no distinction between the two terms. In modern usage, prominent missionaries are often called apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin
Latin
equivalent of apostle, i.e. missio, the source of the English word missionary
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Saint Matthias
MATTHIAS ( Hebrew
Hebrew
transliteration: Mattityahu; Koine Greek
Koine Greek
: Μαθθίας; died c. 80 AD) was, according to the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
, the apostle chosen by lot to replace Judas Iscariot following Judas' betrayal of Jesus
Jesus
and his subsequent death. His calling as an apostle is unique, in that his appointment was not made personally by Jesus
Jesus
, who had already ascended into heaven , and it was also made before the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the early Church. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Ministry * 3 Writings * 4 Veneration * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYThere is no mention of a Matthias among the lists of disciples or followers of Jesus
Jesus
in the three synoptic gospels , but according to Acts, he had been with Jesus
Jesus
from his baptism by John until his Ascension
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Local Governance
A LOCAL GOVERNMENT is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government , national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states , local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance
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Political Party Governance
A POLITICAL PARTY is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized, and in how they operate, there are often many differences, and some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, and many represent ideologies very different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. In many democracies , political parties are elected by the electorate to run a government. Many countries, such as Germany
Germany
and India
India
, have several significant political parties, and some nations have one-party systems , such as China
China
and Cuba
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Hierarchy
A HIERARCHY (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes , "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally. The only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system that is largely hierarchical can also incorporate alternative hierarchies. Indirect hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path . All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another nevertheless can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, and then down again
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