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Ecclesiastical Polity
ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination . It also denotes the ministerial structure of a church and the authority relationships between churches. Polity relates closely to ecclesiology , the study of doctrine and theology relating to church organization. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use as a term * 3 Types of polity * 3.1 Episcopal polity * 3.2 Connexional polity * 3.3 Presbyterian polity * 3.4 Congregational polity * 4 Polity, autonomy, and ecumenism * 5 Plurality and singularity * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORYIssues of church governance appear in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles ; the first act recorded after the ascension is the election of Matthias as one of the Twelve Apostles , replacing Judas Iscariot . Over the years, a system of episcopal polity developed. During the Protestant Reformation , reformers asserted that the New Testament prescribed structures different from those of the Roman Catholic Church of the day and different Protestant bodies used different types of polity. During this period Richard Hooker wrote _Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity _ (published 1594–1597) to defend the polity of the Church of England against views of the Puritans
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Episcopal Polity
An EPISCOPAL POLITY is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops . (The word "bishop" derives, via the British Latin and Vulgar Latin term _*ebiscopus_/_*biscopus_, from the Ancient Greek επίσκοπος _epískopos_ meaning "overseer".) It is the structure used by many of the major Christian Churches and denominations , such as the Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Church of the East , Anglican and Lutheran churches or denominations, and other churches founded independently from these lineages. Churches with an episcopal polity are governed by bishops, practicing their authorities in the dioceses and conferences or synods . Their leadership is both sacramental and constitutional; as well as performing ordinations , confirmations , and consecrations , the bishop supervises the clergy within a local jurisdiction and is the representative both to secular structures and within the hierarchy of the church. Bishops are considered to derive their authority from an unbroken, personal apostolic succession from the Twelve Apostles of Jesus . Bishops with such authority are said to represent the historical episcopate or historic episcopate
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Connexionalism
CONNEXIONALISM, or CONNECTIONALISM, is the theological understanding and foundation of Methodist church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") , as practised in the Methodist Church of Great Britain , the Methodist Church in Ireland , the American United Methodist Church , African Methodist Episcopal Church , African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church , Christian Methodist Episcopal Church and many of the countries where Methodism was established by missionaries sent out from these Churches. In the American church, where bishops provide church leadership, connexionalism is a variety of episcopal polity ; however, in some countries the title of bishop may be used without any change in the Connexional polity. In world Methodism, a given Connexion is usually autonomous. In the history of Christianity in England , a CONNEXION was a circuit of prayer groups who would employ travelling ministers alongside the regular ministers attached to each congregation. This method of organising emerged in 18th-century English Nonconformist religious circles; this is why the otherwise old-fashioned spelling (_connexion_ rather than _connection_) is retained. The Countess of Huntingdon\'s Connexion , for instance, was founded by Selina, Countess of Huntingdon
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Presbyterian Polity
PRESBYTERIAN (OR PRESBYTERAL) POLITY is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters , or elders. Each local church is governed by a body of elected elders usually called the SESSION or _consistory _, though other terms, such as _church board_, may apply. Groups of local churches are governed by a higher assembly of elders known as the PRESBYTERY or CLASSIS; presbyteries can be grouped into a SYNOD, and presbyteries and synods nationwide often join together in a GENERAL ASSEMBLY. Responsibility for conduct of church services is reserved to an ordained minister or pastor known as a _teaching elder_, or a _minister of the word and sacrament._ Presbyterian polity
Presbyterian polity
was developed as a rejection of governance by hierarchies of single bishops (episcopal polity ), but also differs from the congregationalist polity in which each congregation is independent. In contrast to the other two forms, authority in the presbyterian polity flows both from the top down (as higher assemblies exercise limited but important authority over individual congregations, e.g., only the presbytery can ordain ministers, install pastors, and start up, close, and approve relocating a congregation) and from the bottom up (e.g., the moderator and officers are not appointed from above but are rather elected by and from among the members of the assembly)
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Congregationalist Polity
CONGREGATIONALIST POLITY, or CONGREGATIONAL POLITY, often known as CONGREGATIONALISM, is a system of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign , or "autonomous ". Its first articulation in writing is the Cambridge Platform of 1648 in New England . Among those major Protestant Christian traditions that employ congregationalism are those Congregational Churches known by the "Congregationalist" name that descended from the Independent Reformed wing of the Anglo-American Puritan movement of the 17th century, Quakerism , the Baptist churches, and most of the groups brought about by the Anabaptist movement in Germany that migrated to the U.S. in the late 18th century, as well as the Congregational Methodist Church . More recent generations have witnessed also a growing number of non-denominational churches, which are most often congregationalist in their governance. In Christianity , congregationalism is distinguished most clearly from episcopal polity , which is governance by a hierarchy of bishops . But it is also distinct from presbyterian polity , in which higher assemblies of congregational representatives can exercise considerable authority over individual congregations. Congregationalism is not limited only to organization of Christian Church congregations
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Governance
_ This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT IN PHILOSOPHY OR BUSINESS. Please add a reason_ or a _talk_ parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Philosophy or WikiProject Business
Business
may be able to help recruit an expert. _(February 2009)_ Part of a series on GOVERNANCE MODELS * Collaborative * Good * Multistakeholder * Open-source * Private * Self BY LEVEL * Local * Global BY FIELD * Climate * Clinical * Corporate * Cultural * Data * Earth system * Ecclesiastical * Environmental * Higher education * Information * Network * Ocean * Political party * Project * Self * Service-oriented architecture * Soil * Technology * Transnational * Website MEASURES * World Governance Index * Sustainable Governance Indicators RELATED TOPICS * Chief governance officer * Governance, risk management and compliance * E-governance * Environmental, social and corporate governance * Market governance mechanism * v * t * e GOVERNANCE is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government , market or network , whether over a family , tribe , formal or informal organization or territory and whether through the laws , norms , power or language of an organized society
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Collaborative Governance
Governance is a broader concept than government and also includes the roles played by the community sector and the private sector in managing and planning countries, regions and cities. COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE involves the government, community and private sectors communicating with each other and working together to achieve more than any one sector could achieve on its own. Ansell and Gash (2008) have explored the conditions required for effective collaborative governance. They say “The ultimate goal is to develop a contingency approach of collaboration that can highlight conditions under which collaborative governance will be more or less effective as an approach to policy making and public management” Collaborative governance covers both the informal and formal relationships in problem solving and decision-making. Conventional government policy processes can be embedded in wider policy processes by facilitating collaboration between the public, private and community sectors. Collaborative Governance requires three things, namely: support; leadership; and a forum. The support identifies the policy problem to be fixed. The leadership gathers the sectors into a forum. Then, the members of the forum collaborate to develop policies, solutions and answers
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Good Governance
GOOD GOVERNANCE is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governance is "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)". The term governance can apply to corporate, international, national, local governance or to the interactions between other sectors of society. The concept of "good governance" often emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as "most successful" are Western liberal democratic states , concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of "good governance" to a set of requirements that conform to the organization's agenda, making "good governance" imply many different things in many different contexts
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Multistakeholder Governance Model
The MULTISTAKEHOLDER GOVERNANCE MODEL, sometimes known as a MULTISTAKEHOLDER INITIATIVE (MSI), is a governance structure that seeks to bring stakeholders together to participate in the dialogue, decision making, and implementation of solutions to common problems or goals. According to Lawrence E. Strickling, U.S. Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information, and NTIA Administrator, "the multistakeholder process, ... involves the full involvement of all stakeholders, consensus-based decision-making and operating in an open, transparent and accountable manner." A stakeholder refers to an individual, group, or organization that has a direct or indirect interest or stake in a particular organization, these may be businesses, civil society , governments, research institutions, and non-government organizations. MULTI-STAKEHOLDERMULTISTAKEHOLDERISM is a framework and means of engagement; it is not a means of legitimization. Legitimization comes from people, from work with and among people. Multistakeholder processes could and should enhance democracy by increasing opportunities for effective participation by those most directly impacted by decisions and particularly those at the grassroots who so often are voiceless in these processes. It should enhance democracy by ensuring that decisions made are reflective of and responsive to local concerns and to the broadest range of those who must bear the consequences
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Open-source Governance
OPEN-SOURCE GOVERNANCE (also known as OPEN POLITICS) is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open-source and open-content movements to democratic principles to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document. Legislation is democratically opened to the general citizenry, employing their collective wisdom to benefit the decision-making process and improve democracy. Theories on how to constrain, limit or enable this participation vary. Accordingly, there is no one dominant theory of how to go about authoring legislation with this approach. There are a wide array of projects and movements which are working on building open-source governance systems. Many left-libertarian and radical centrist organizations around the globe have begun advocating open-source governance and its related political ideas as a reformist alternative to current governance systems. Often, these groups have their origins in decentralized structures such as the Internet and place particular importance on the need for anonymity to protect an individual's right to free speech in democratic systems. Opinions vary, however, not least because the principles behind open-source government are still very loosely defined
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Private Governance
This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT IN PHILOSOPHY OR BUSINESS. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Philosophy or WikiProject Business may be able to help recruit an expert. (February 2009) Part of a series on GOVERNANCE MODELS * Collaborative * Good * Multistakeholder * Open-source * Private * Self BY LEVEL * Local * Global BY FIELD * Climate * Clinical * Corporate * Cultural * Data * Earth system * Ecclesiastical * Environmental * Higher education * Information * Network * Ocean * Political party * Project * Self * Service-oriented architecture * Soil * Technology * Transnational * Website MEASURES * World Governance Index * Sustainable Governance Indicators RELATED TOPICS * Chief governance officer * Governance, risk management and compliance * E-governance * Environmental, social and corporate governance * Market governance mechanism * v * t * e GOVERNANCE is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government , market or network , whether over a family , tribe , formal or informal organization or territory and whether through the laws , norms , power or language of an organized society
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Self-governance
SELF-GOVERNANCE, SELF-GOVERNMENT, or AUTONOMY, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization . It may refer to personal conduct or family units or to larger scale activities including professions , industry bodies, religions , political units (usually referred to as local government ), including autonomous regions and/or others within nation-states that enjoy some sovereign rights . It falls within the larger context of governance and principles such as consent of the governed , and may involve non-profit organizations and corporate governance . It can be used to describe a person, people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. In addition to describing personal autonomy, "self-rule" is also associated with contexts where there is the end of colonial rule, absolute government or monarchy , as well as demands for autonomy by religious, ethnic or geographic regions which perceive themselves as being unrepresented or underrepresented in a national government. It is therefore a fundamental tenet of republican government and democracy as well as nationalism . Gandhi 's term "swaraj " (see also "satygraha ") is a branch of this self-rule ideology. Another major proponent of self-rule when a government's actions are immoral is Thoreau
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Local Governance
LOCAL GOVERNMENT is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government , national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states , local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance . The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common names for local government entities include state, province , region , department , county , prefecture , district , city , township , town , borough , parish , municipality , shire , village , and local service district
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Global Governance
GLOBAL GOVERNANCE or WORLD GOVERNANCE is a movement towards political cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region. Institutions of global governance —the United Nations
United Nations
, the International Criminal Court , the World Bank
World Bank
, etc.—tend to have limited or demarcated power to enforce compliance. The modern question of world governance exists in the context of globalization and globalizing regimes of power: politically, economically and culturally. In response to the acceleration of worldwide interdependence , both between human societies and between humankind and the biosphere , the term "global governance" may name the process of designating laws, rules, or regulations intended for a global scale. Global governance is not a singular system. There is no "world government " but the many different regimes of global _governance_ do have commonalities: While the contemporary system of global political relations is not integrated, the relation between the various regimes of global governance is not insignificant, and the system does have a common dominant organizational form. The dominant mode of organization today is bureaucratic rational – regularized, codified and rational
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Climate Governance
In political ecology and environmental policy , CLIMATE GOVERNANCE is the diplomacy, mechanisms and response measures "aimed at steering social systems towards preventing, mitigating or adapting to the risks posed by climate change ". A definitive interpretation is complicated by the wide range of political and social science traditions (including comparative politics , political economy and multilevel governance ) that are engaged in conceiving and analysing climate governance at different levels and across different arenas. In academia, climate governance has become the concern of geographers , anthropologists , economists and business studies scholars. In the past two decades a paradox has arisen between rising awareness about the causes and consequences of climate change and an increasing concern that the issues that surround it represent an intractable problem. Initially, climate change was approached as a global issue , and climate governance sought to address it on the international stage. This took the form of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs), beginning with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) in 1992. With the exception of the Kyoto Protocol , international agreements between nations have been largely ineffective in achieving legally binding emissions cuts and with the end of the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period in 2012, starting from 2013 there is no legally binding Global climate regime
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