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Eastern Front (World War I)
Central Powers
Central Powers
victory * Collapse of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
leading to the
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Arthur Arz Von Straußenburg
First World War
First World War
* Gorlice-Tarnów * Rumanian Campaign * Caporetto * Piave River AWARDS Military Order of Maria Theresa
Military Order of Maria Theresa
Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite
OTHER WORK Author Generaloberst
Generaloberst
ARTHUR FREIHERR ARZ VON STRAUßENBURG (16 June 1857 – 1 June 1935) was an Austro-Hungarian Colonel General
Colonel General
and last Chief of the General Staff
General Staff
of the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
. At the outbreak of the First World War
First World War
, he commanded the 15th Infantry Division. Soon, he was promoted to the head of the 6th Corps
Corps
and the First Army
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Nikola Zhekov
NIKOLA TODOROV ZHEKOV (Bulgarian : Никола Тодоров Жеков; 6 January 1864 – 1 November 1949) was the Minister of War of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1915 and served as commander-in-chief from 1915 to 1918 during World War I
World War I
. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
* 1.2 First World War
First World War
* 1.3 Later life * 2 Awards * 3 See also * 4 References BIOGRAPHY Nikola Zhekov
Nikola Zhekov
was born 1865 in Sliven
Sliven
. He was accepted in Sofia Military School and volunteered to serve in a reserve regiment during the Serbo-Bulgarian War
Serbo-Bulgarian War
of 1885. In 1886, he took part in the military coup against prince Alexander Batenberg . After the plot failed he was demoted to the rank of cadet and sent to serve in the 12th infantry regiment
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Erich Ludendorff
ERICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM LUDENDORFF (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège
Battle of Liège
and the Battle of Tannenberg
Battle of Tannenberg
. From August 1916, his appointment as Quartermaster general (Erster Generalquartiermeister) made him the leader (along with Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
) of the German war efforts during World War I
World War I
until his resignation in October 1918, just before the end of hostilities
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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (RUSSIAN SFSR or RSFSR; Russian : Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika listen (help ·info )), also known as SOVIET RUSSIA or RUSSIA (/ˈrʌʃə/ ( listen ); Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossija; IPA: ; from the Greek : Ρωσία — Rus\' ), was a sovereign state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with its own legislation in 1990–91. The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics , five autonomous oblasts , ten autonomous okrugs , six krais , and forty oblasts . Russians
Russians
formed the largest ethnic group
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Russian Republic
The RUSSIAN REPUBLIC (also known as RUSSIA) (Russian : Российская республика, tr. Rossiyskaya respublika; IPA: ) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure , the territory of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September in a decree signed by Kerensky as Minister-President and Zarudny as Minister of Justice. Less than six weeks later, the Republic was overtaken by the October Revolution beginning on 25 October 1917 and the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR). Officially, the Republic's government was the Provisional Government, although de facto control of the country and its armed forces was divided between the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet
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Kingdom Of Romania
The KINGDOM OF ROMANIA (Romanian : _Regatul României_) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866 , 1923 , 1938 ). The Kingdom of Romania began with the reign of King Carol I of Romania who gained Romanians' independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Romanian War of Independence (part of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 ), and ended with the abdication of King Michael I of Romania on 30 December 1947, imposed by the Soviet Union with the tacit and secret, implicit consent of its allies (as a result of the Yalta Conference and secret agreements). As such, it is quite distinct from the Romanian Old Kingdom , which refers strictly to the reign of King Carol I of Romania, between 14 March (O.S. ) (27 March (N.S.)) 1881 and 27 September (O.S. ) (10 October (N.S.)) 1914
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Grand Duke Nicholas
GRAND DUKE NIKOLAY NIKOLAYEVICH ROMANOV OF RUSSIA (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I
World War I
. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I of Russia
, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus . He was briefly recognized as Emperor of Russia in 1922 in areas controlled by the White Movement in the Russian Far East
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Aleksei Brusilov
ALEKSEI ALEKSEEVICH BRUSILOV (Russian : Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; 19 August 1853 – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive . The innovative and relatively successful tactics used were later copied by the Germans. Born into the aristocracy (his father was a general) Brusilov trained as a cavalry officer, but by 1914 he realized that cavalry was obsolescent in the new style of warfare because of its vulnerability to the machine gun and artillery. Historians portray him as the only Russian leader capable of winning major battles. However, his heavy casualties seriously weakened the Russian army, which was unable to replace its losses. His greatest achievement was the Brusilov offensive. He had a small numerical advantage (600,000 to 500,000), but in 72 hours advanced 50 miles, took 200,000 prisoners, and seized 700 heavy guns
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Bulgaria
Coordinates : 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500 Republic of Bulgaria _Република България_ (Bulgarian ) _Republika Bǎlgariya_ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian ) * "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata" (transliteration ) * " Unity makes strength " ANTHEM: _Мила Родино_ (Bulgarian) _ Mila Rodino _ (transliteration) _Dear Motherland_ Location of Bulgaria (dark green) – in
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Romania
Coordinates : 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25 Romania _România_ (Romanian ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Deșteaptă-te, române! _ '"Awaken thee, Romanian!" Location of Romania (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100 OFFIC
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Nikolai Krylenko
NIKOLAI VASILYEVICH KRYLENKO (Russian : Никола́й Васи́льевич Крыле́нко; May 2, 1885 – July 29, 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician . Krylenko served in a variety of posts in the Soviet legal system , rising to become People\'s Commissar for Justice and Prosecutor General of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
. Krylenko was an exponent of socialist legality and the theory that political considerations, rather than criminal guilt or innocence, should guide the application of punishment. Although a participant in the Show Trials and political repression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, Krylenko was ultimately arrested himself during the Great Purge . Following interrogation and torture by the NKVD , Krylenko confessed to extensive involvement in wrecking and anti-Soviet agitation
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Ferdinand I Of Romania
FERDINAND I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927), nicknamed Întregitorul ("the Unifier"), was King of Romania
Romania
from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Marriage * 3 King of Romania * 3.1 World War I
World War I
* 3.2 After the war * 4 Death * 5 Titles, styles and honours * 5.1 Titles and styles * 5.2 Honours * 5.2.1 National honours * 5.2.2 Foreign honours * 6 Ancestry * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
in southwestern Germany
Germany
, the Roman Catholic PRINCE FERDINAND VIKTOR ALBERT MEINRAD OF HOHENZOLLERN-SIGMARINGEN . The name was later shortened simply to Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
after the extinction of the Hohenzollern-Hechingen branch in 1869
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Lavr Kornilov
LAVR GEORGIYEVICH KORNILOV (Russian : Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов, IPA: ; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a military intelligence officer, explorer, and general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I
World War I
and the ensuing Russian Civil War . He is today best remembered for the Kornilov Affair , an unsuccessful endeavor in August/September 1917 that purported to strengthen Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
's Provisional Government , but which led to Kerensky eventually having Kornilov arrested and charged with attempting a coup d\'état , and ultimately undermined the rule of Kerensky; strengthening the claims and power of the soviets, and the Bolshevik party
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Nikolay Dukhonin
NIKOLAY NIKOLAYEVICH DUKHONIN (Russian : Никола́й Никола́евич Духо́нин; 13 December 1876 – 3 December 1917 ) was a Russian general, the last commander-in-chief of the Russian Imperial Army . BIOGRAPHYDukhonin was born in the Smolensk Governorate . He served in the Kiev Military District before the start of the First World War . There he gained some experience in intelligence work. At the outset of the War, Dukhonin was given command of a Russian regiment. He was then assigned to the Third Army in Dubno under General
General
Ruzsky as senior adjutant of the intelligence department
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Ottoman Turkish : دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, _Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye_; Modern Turkish : _Osmanlı İmparatorluğu_ or _Osmanlı Devleti_), also known as the TURKISH EMPIRE, or OTTOMAN TURKEY, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe , and with the conquest of the Balkans , the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire (known to the Ottomans as the _Roman_ Empire) with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror
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