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Earthfill Dam
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam. It is typically created by the placement and compaction of a complex semi-plastic mound of various compositions of soil, sand, clay, or rock. It has a semi-pervious waterproof natural covering for its surface and a dense, impervious core. This makes such a dam impervious to surface or seepage erosion.[1] Such a dam is composed of fragmented independent material particles. The friction and interaction of particles binds the particles together into a stable mass rather than by the use of a cementing substance.[2]Contents1 Types 2 Safety 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksTypes[edit] Embankment dams come in two types: the earth-filled dam (also called an earthen dam or terrain dam) made of compacted earth, and the rock-filled dam. A cross-section of an embankment dam shows a shape like a bank, or hill
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Mica Dam
Mica
Mica
Dam, a hydroelectric dam spanning the Columbia River
Columbia River
135 kilometres north of Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, was built as one of three Canadian projects under the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty and is operated by BC Hydro. Completed in 1973 under the terms of the treaty, the Mica
Mica
powerhouse had an original generating capacity of 1,805 megawatts (MW). Mica
Mica
Dam, named after the nearby settlement of Mica
Mica
Creek and its associated stream, in turn named after the abundance of mica minerals in the area, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world. The reservoir for the dam is Kinbasket Lake, which was created when the dam was built. Water from the dam flows south directly into Revelstoke Lake, the reservoir for the Revelstoke Dam
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Asphalt Concrete
Asphalt
Asphalt
concrete (commonly called asphalt,[1] blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac or bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.[2] It consists of mineral aggregate bound together with asphalt, laid in layers, and compacted. The process was refined and enhanced by Belgian inventor and U.S. immigrant Edward de Smedt.[3] The terms asphalt (or asphaltic) concrete, bituminous asphalt concrete, and bituminous mixture are typically used only in engineering and construction documents, which define concrete as any composite material composed of mineral aggregate adhered with a binder
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Hubert Chanson
Hubert Chanson (born 1 November 1961) is a professor in hydraulic engineering and applied fluid mechanics in the School of Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland
University of Queensland
since 1990
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List Of Largest Dams In The World
The following table lists the largest man-made dams in the world by volume of fill/structure. By general definition, a dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams, hence tailings dams are relegated to a separate list
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Gravity Dam
A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by primarily utilizing the weight of the material alone to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against it. Gravity dams are designed so that each section of the dam is stable, independent of any other dam section.[1][2] Gravity dams generally require stiff rock foundations of high bearing strength (slightly weathered to fresh); although they have been built on soil foundations in rare cases. The bearing strength of the foundation limits the allowable position of the resultant which influences the overall stability. Also, the stiff nature of the gravity dam structure is unforgiving to differential foundation settlement; which can induce cracking of the dam structure. Gravity dams provide some advantages over embankment dams. The main advantage being that they can tolerate minor over topping flows as the concrete is resistant to scouring
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Earth Structure
An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil. Since soil is a widely available material, it has been used in construction since prehistoric times. It may be combined with other materials, compressed and/or baked to add strength. Soil
Soil
is still an economical material for many applications, and may have low environmental impact both during and after construction. Earth structure
Earth structure
materials may be as simple as mud, or mud mixed with straw to make cob. Sturdy dwellings may be also built from sod or turf. Soil
Soil
may be stabilized by the addition of lime or cement, and may be compacted into rammed earth. Construction is faster with pre-formed adobe or mudbricks, compressed earth blocks, earthbags or fired clay bricks.[a] Types of earth structure include earth shelters, where a dwelling is wholly or partly embedded in the ground or encased in soil
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Stepped Spillway
A stepped spillway is a spillway with steps on the spillway chute to assist in the dissipation of the kinetic energy of the descending water. This eliminates or reduces the need for an additional energy dissipator, such as a body of water, at the end of the spillway downstream.Contents1 Historical developments 2 Basic flow characteristics2.1 Discussion3 See also 4 ReferencesHistorical developments[edit] Stepped spillways, consisting of weirs and channels, have been used for over 3,500 years since the first structures were built in Greece and Crete
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Dam Failure
A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or slows down the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundments. Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over or through which water flows, either intermittently or continuously, and some have hydroelectric power generation systems installed. Dams are considered "installations containing dangerous forces" under International Humanitarian Law
International Humanitarian Law
due to the massive impact of a possible destruction on the civilian population and the environment. Dam failures are comparatively rare, but can cause immense damage and loss of life when they occur. In 1975 the failure of the Banqiao Reservoir Dam
Dam
and other dams in Henan Province, China
China
caused more casualties than any other dam failure in history
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Spillway
A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically the riverbed of the dammed river itself. In the United Kingdom they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways ensure that the water does not overflow and damage or destroy the dam. Floodgates and fuse plugs may be designed into spillways to regulate water flow and reservoir level. Such a spillway can be used to regulate downstream flows – by releasing water in small amounts before the reservoir is full, operators can prevent sudden large releases that would happen if the dam were overtopped. Other uses of the term "spillway" include bypasses of dams or outlets of channels used during high water, and outlet channels carved through natural dams such as moraines. Water normally flows over a spillway only during flood periods – when the reservoir cannot hold the excess of water entering the reservoir over the amount used
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Erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95Canada Flag Coat of arms Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)"From Sea to Sea"Anthem: "O Canada"[a] CapitalOttawa45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest cityTorontoOfficial languagesEnglishFrenchEthnic groups (2016)[2] List of ethnicities 74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian Religion (2011)[3] List of religions 67.2% Christianity
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Soil Mechanics
Soil
Soil
mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils. It differs from fluid mechanics and solid mechanics in the sense that soils consist of a heterogeneous mixture of fluids (usually air and water) and particles (usually clay, silt, sand, and gravel) but soil may also contain organic solids and other matter.[1][2][3][4] Along with rock mechanics, soil mechanics provides the theoretical basis for analysis in geotechnical engineering,[5] a subdiscipline of civil engineering, and engineering geology, a subdiscipline of geology
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Plasticity (physics)
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.[1][2] For example, a solid piece of metal being bent or pounded into a new shape displays plasticity as permanent changes occur within the material itself. In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield. Plastic
Plastic
deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.[3][4][5][6][7][8] However, the physical mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is usually a consequence of dislocations. Such defects are relatively rare in most crystalline materials, but are numerous in some and part of their crystal structure; in such cases, plastic crystallinity can result
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