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Early Pleistocene
The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(also known as the Lower Pleistocene) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period/system and Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma.[2] The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
consists of the Gelasian and the Calabrian ages.[3] Notes[edit]^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Middle Triassic
The Triassic
Triassic
( /traɪˈæsɪk/) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 201.3 Mya.[8] The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.[9] The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event, which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time
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Paleocene
The Paleocene
Paleocene
( /ˈpæliəˌsiːn, ˈpæ-, -lioʊ-/[2]) or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geologic epoch that lasted from about 66 to 56 million years ago. It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. As with many geologic periods, the strata that define the epoch's beginning and end are well identified, but the exact ages remain uncertain. The Paleocene
Paleocene
Epoch is bracketed by two major events in Earth's history. It started with the mass extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous, known as the Cretaceous– Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary. This was a time marked by the demise of non-avian dinosaurs, giant marine reptiles and much other fauna and flora. The die-off of the dinosaurs left unfilled ecological niches worldwide
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Interglacial
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age
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Younger Dryas
The Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
(c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
started receding around 20,000 BP. It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, as its leaves are occasionally abundant in the Late Glacial, often minerogenic-rich, like the lake sediments of Scandinavian lakes. Physical evidence of a sharp decline in temperature over most of the Northern Hemisphere, discovered by geological research, has been the key physical evidence found for the Younger Dryas. This temperature change occurred at the end of what the earth sciences refer to as the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch and immediately before the current, warmer Holocene epoch
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Chronostratigraphy
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time. The ultimate aim of chronostratigraphy is to arrange the sequence of deposition and the time of deposition of all rocks within a geological region, and eventually, the entire geologic record of the Earth. The standard stratigraphic nomenclature is a chronostratigraphic system based on palaeontological intervals of time defined by recognised fossil assemblages (biostratigraphy). The aim of chronostratigraphy is to give a meaningful age date to these fossil assemblage intervals and interfaces.[citation needed]Contents1 Methodology 2 Units 3 Differences between chronostratigraphy and geochronology 4 See also 5 ReferencesMethodology[edit] Chronostratigraphy relies heavily upon isotope geology and geochronology to derive hard dating of known and well defined rock units which contain the specific fossil assemblages defined by the stratigraphic system
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Annum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Cenozoic
The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era ( /ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk, ˌsɛ-/)[1][2] is the current geological era, covering the period from 66 million years ago to the present day. The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
is also known as the Age of Mammals, because of the large mammals that dominate it. The continents also moved into their current positions during this era.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Divisions2.1 Paleogene Period 2.2 Neogene 2.3 Quaternary3 Animal life 4 Tectonics 5 Climate 6 Life 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksNomenclature[edit] Cenozoic, meaning "new life," is derived from Greek καινός kainós "new," and ζωή zōḗ "life."[3] The era is also known as the Cænozoic, Caenozoic, or Cainozoic
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Miocene
The Miocene
Miocene
( /ˈmaɪəˌsiːn/[2][3]) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago (Ma). The Miocene
Miocene
was named by Charles Lyell; its name comes from the Greek words μείων (meiōn, “less”) and καινός (kainos, “new”)[4] and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene
Oligocene
and is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene
Oligocene
through the Miocene
Miocene
and into the Pliocene, the climate slowly cooled towards a series of ice ages
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Paleogene
The Paleogene (/ˈpæliədʒiːn, ˈpeɪliə-/; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya
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Oligocene
The Oligocene
Oligocene
( /ˈɒlɪɡoʊsiːn/) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos, "few") and καινός (kainós, "new"),[2] and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Mesozoic
The Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era ( /ˌmɛsəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/[1][2]) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the Age of Reptiles, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell
Gideon Mantell
who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus
Plesiosaurus
and Pterodactylus. This Era is also called from a paleobotanist view the Age of Conifers.[3] Mesozoic
Mesozoic
means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being".[4] It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
("new life")
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Blytt–Sernander System
The Blytt-Sernander classification, or sequence, is a series of north European climatic periods or phases based on the study of Danish peat bogs by Axel Blytt
Axel Blytt
(1876) and Rutger Sernander
Rutger Sernander
(1908). The classification was incorporated into a sequence of pollen zones later defined by Lennart von Post, one of the founders of palynology.Contents1 Description 2 Problems2.1 Dating and calibration 2.2 Cross-discipline correlation3 Sequence 4 Marker species 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Layers in peat were first noticed by Heinrich Dau in 1829.[1] A prize was offered by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
to anyone who could explain them. Blytt hypothesized that the darker layers were deposited in drier times; the lighter, in moister times, applying his terms Atlantic (warm, moist) and Boreal (cool, dry)
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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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Late Cretaceous
The Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period is divided in the geologic timescale. Rock strata from this epoch form the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series
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