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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 6th century
6th century
to the 10th century
10th century
CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
of European history. The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
overlap with Late Antiquity. The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Slavic Peoples
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Emperor
An emperor (through Old French
Old French
empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe
Europe
the title of Emperor
Emperor
has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Population Decline
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.[1]Contents1 Causes 2 Underpopulation 3 Changing trends 4 Interpretation of statistical data 5 Contemporary decline by nation or territory 6 Long-term trends6.1 United States 6.2 Japan 6.3 Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and former Soviet republics6.3.1 Albania 6.3.2 Armenia 6.3.3 Belarus 6.3.4 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.3.5 Bulgaria 6.3.6 Croatia 6.3.
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire
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Common Era
Common Era or Current Era (CE)[1] is a name for a calendar era widely used around the world today. The era preceding CE is known as before the Common or Current Era (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")[2] and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2018 CE" corresponds to "AD 2018" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[2][3][4][a] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(and its predecessor, the Julian calendar)
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10th Century
The 10th century
10th century
is the period from 901
901
to 1000
1000
in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium. In China
China
the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
was established. The Muslim
Muslim
World experienced a cultural zenith, especially in al-Andalus under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires. Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that ". .
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Century
A century (from the Latin
Latin
centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.[1]) is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. A centenary is a hundredth anniversary, or a celebration of this, typically the remembrance of an event which took place a hundred years earlier.Contents1 Start and end in the Gregorian calendar1.1 Viewpoint 1: Strict usage 1.2 Viewpoint 2: General usage2 1st century BC and AD 3 Dating units in other calendar systems 4 Centuries in astronomical year numbering 5 Alternative naming systems 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyStart and end in the Gregorian calendar[edit] Although a century can mean any arbitrary period of 100 years, there are two viewpoints on the nature of standard centuries
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6th Century
The 6th century
6th century
is the period from 501
501
to 600
600
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era. In the West, this century marks the end of Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
late in the previous century, Europe fractured into many small Germanic Kingdoms, which competed fiercely for land and wealth. From this upheaval the Franks
Franks
rose to prominence, and carved out a sizeable domain encompassing much of modern France and Germany
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Emirate Of Cordova
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Islamic monarch styled emir. It also means principality.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 As monarchies 3 As provinces 4 List of present Emirates 5 List of former and integrated emirates5.1 Europe5.1.1 Iberia 5.1.2 Mediterranean region 5.1.3 Caucasus5.2 Asia5.2.1 Near East 5.2.2 Arabia 5.2.3 Central Asia and Indian subcontinent5.3 Africa5.3.1 North Africa 5.3.2 Nigeria6 See also 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Etymologically emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة‎ imārah, plural: إمارات imārāt) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir (prince, commander, governor etc.). As monarchies[edit] The United Arab Emirates is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister
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Sardinia
Sardinia
Sardinia
(/sɑːrˈdɪniə/ sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa], Sardinian: Sardìgna/Sardìnnia [sarˈdiɲɲa]/[sarˈdinja], Sassarese: Sardhigna, Gallurese: Saldigna, Catalan: Sardenya, Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(after Sicily
Sicily
and before Cyprus) and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. The region's official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia),[3] and its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city
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Magyar Tribes
The Magyar tribes
Magyar tribes
or Hungarian clan (Hungarian: magyar törzsek) were the fundamental political units within whose framework the Hungarians (Magyars) lived, until these clans from the region of Ural Mountains[1] invaded the Carpathian Basin and established the Principality of Hungary.[2][3]Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Social organization 4 See also 5 Sources 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] See also: Name of Hungary The ethnonym of the Hungarian tribal alliance is uncertain. According to one view, following Anonymus's description, the federation was called "Hetumoger" (Seven Magyars) ("VII principales persone qui Hetumoger dicuntur", "seven princely persons who are called Seven Magyars"[4]), though the word "Magyar" possibly comes from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, called Megyer
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Duchy Of Benevento
The Duchy of Benevento
Benevento
(after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy. Being cut off from the rest of the Lombard possessions by the papal Duchy of Rome, Benevento
Benevento
was practically independent from the start. Only during the reigns of Grimoald I of Benevento
Benevento
and the kings from Liutprand on was the duchy closely tied to the kingdom
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