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EPPO Code
An EPPO code, formerly known as a Bayer code, is an encoded identifier that is used by the European and Mediterranean Plant
Plant
Protection Organization (EPPO), in a system designed to uniquely identify organisms – namely plants, pests and pathogens – that are important to agriculture and crop protection. EPPO codes are a core component of a database of names, both scientific and vernacular. Although originally started by the Bayer Corporation, the official list of codes is now maintained by EPPO.[1]Contents1 EPPO code database1.1 Example2 External links 3 ReferencesEPPO code database[edit] All codes and their associated names are included in a database (EPPO Global Database). In total, there are over 68,500 species listed in the EPPO database, including:[2]36,000 species of plants (e.g. cultivated, wild plants and weeds) 24,000 species of animals (e.g
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European And Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for European cooperation in plant protection in the European and Mediterranean region. Under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), EPPO is the Regional Plant Protection Organization (RPPO) for Europe and is based in Paris. Founded in 1951 EPPO had grown to have 51 members in 2016. EPPO's objectives are to protect plants, to develop international strategies against the introduction and spread of dangerous pests and to promote safe and effective control methods. EPPO has developed international standards and recommendations on phytosanitary measures, good plant protection practice and on the assessment of plant protection products (pesticides). It also provides a reporting service of events of phytosanitary concern such as outbreaks and new pest records
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Scientific Name
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system") also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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Virus
I: ds DNA
DNA
viruses II: ss DNA
DNA
viruses III: ds RNA
RNA
viruses IV: (+)ss RNA
RNA
viruses V: (−)ss RNA
RNA
viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT virusesA virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses,[1] in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo
Panthera leo
(lion) and Panthera onca
Panthera onca
(jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera
Panthera
is a genus within the family Felidae. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Mite
.mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox text-align:center;width:200px;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox th.section-header text-align:center .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox td.section-content text-align:left;padding:0 0.25em .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox td.list-section text-align:left;padding:0 0.25em .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox td.taxon-section text-align:center;padding:0 0.25em .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox td.image-section text-align:center;font-size:88% .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox table.taxonomy margin:0 auto;text-align:left;background:transparent;padding:2px .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox table.taxonomy tr vertical-align:top .mw-parser-output table.biota-infobox table.taxonomy td padding:1px MitesPeacock mite ( Tuckerella<
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Encoding
In communications and informationtter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes [[data compress or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language which enabled a perso, through speech, to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time. The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage
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Weed
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields, gardens, lawns, and parks. Taxonomically, the term "weed" has no botanical significance, because a plant that is a weed in one context is not a weed when growing in a situation where it is in fact wanted, and where one species of plant is a valuable crop plant, another species in the same genus might be a serious weed, such as a wild bramble growing among cultivated loganberries. In the same way, volunteer crops (plants) are regarded as weeds in a subsequent crop. Many plants that people widely regard as weeds also are intentionally grown in gardens and other cultivated settings, in which case they are sometimes called beneficial weeds
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Cultivar
The term cultivar[nb 1] most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources
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Species
In biology, a species (/ˈspiːʃiːz/ // (listen)) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA
DNA
sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species
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Bayer Corporation
Bayer
Bayer
Corporation (also known as Bayer
Bayer
USA) is the American subsidiary of Bayer
Bayer
AG. Its main offices are located in Whippany, New Jersey. In addition it has 40 fully consolidated subsidiary companies[3] located in 19 different states.[4]Contents1 History1.1 Mobay 1.2 Spin-off2 Products 3 Subsidiaries 4 Philanthropic activities 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Bayer
Bayer
AG began marketing in the United States
United States
soon after the company's inception in Germany. In the late 1800s, they began to sell their trademark medication, aspirin. While the name "aspirin" became synonymous with Bayer
Bayer
for over a quarter of a century, the company lost the trademark on the name in the United States
United States
during World War I, due to the company's German origin
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Vernacular Name
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is by no means always the case.[1] Sometimes common names are created by authorities on one particular subject, in an attempt to make it possible for members of the general public (including such interested parties as fishermen, farmers, etc.) to be able to refer to one particular species of organism without needing to be able to memorise or pronounce the Latinized scientific name
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Database
A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques. The database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS
DBMS
software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS
DBMS
and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". Often the term "database" is also used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s
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Crop Protection
Crop protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests (both vertebrate and invertebrate)that damage agricultural crops and forestry. Agricultural crops include field crops (maize, wheat, rice, etc.), vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, etc.) and fruits. The crops in field are exposed to many factor. The crop plants may be damaged by insects, birds, rodents, bacteria, etc. Crop protection encompasses:Pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides Biological pest control
Biological pest control
approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks Barrier-based approaches such as agrotextiles and bird netting Animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scarers Biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modificationSee also[edit]CAB International CropLife International Vive Crop ProtectionThis horticulture article is a stub
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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