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E. D. Morel
Edmund Dene Morel (born Georges Eduard Pierre Achille Morel de Ville; 10 July 1873 – 12 November 1924) was a British journalist, author, pacifist, and politician. In collaboration with Roger Casement, Morel led a campaign against slavery in the Congo Free State, founding the Congo Reform Association and running the West African Mail. He played a significant role in the British pacifist movement during the First World War, participating in the foundation and becoming secretary of the Union of Democratic Control, at which point he broke with the Liberal Party
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Member Of Parliament (UK)
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title
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Congo Rubber
Rubber was exported from the Belgian Congo, starting in 1890. Congo rubber was a commercial rubber most notable for its forced harvesting under conditions of great human suffering, in the Congo Free State, detailed in the 1904 Casement Report.[1] Some estimates, that during 1885-1908 about 10 million people were killed in rubber industry in Congo.[2] History[edit]Victim of the rubber industry in Congo. Chopped off hand was a punishment for not enough efficient work.According to a 1905 article (shortly after the peak of Congo production):Red Kasai and Congo rubbers are obtained from the same species of vines, namely, the Landolphia, Owariensis Pal. Beauv., L. Gentilii De Wild and L
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Foreign And Commonwealth Office
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
(FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It is responsible for protecting and promoting British interests worldwide. It was created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office. The head of the FCO is the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly abbreviated to "Foreign Secretary" (currently Boris Johnson, who took office on 13 July 2016)
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Mary Kingsley
Mary Henrietta Kingsley (13 October 1862[1] – 3 June 1900[2][3]) was an English ethnographer, scientific writer, and explorer whose travels throughout West Africa and resulting work helped shape European perceptions of African cultures and British imperialism.Contents1 Early life 2 Journeys to Africa 3 Return to England 4 Publications4.1 Published works5 Death 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksEarly life[edit] Kingsley was born in London 13 October 1862,[1] the daughter and oldest child of doctor, traveler, and writer George Kingsley[4] and Mary Bailey. She came from a family of writers, as she was also the niece of novelists Charles Kingsley
Charles Kingsley
and Henry Kingsley. The family moved to Highgate
Highgate
less than a year after her birth, the same home where her brother Charles George R
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White People
White people
White people
is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Caucasian ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context. The usage of "white people" or a "white race" for a large group of (mainly European) populations, defined besides other characteristics by their light skin and contrasting with "black people", Native Americans, "colored" or "persons of color" originated in the 17th century. It was only during the 18th century, that this floating category was transformed in a quasi-scientific system of race and skin color relations. The concept of a homogeneous white race did not achieve universal acceptance in Europe. The strongest proponents of ethnocentrism in particular, such as Fascist Italy
Italy
and Nazi Germany, regarded some European peoples
European peoples
as racially distinct from themselves
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Aborigines' Protection Society
The Aborigines' Protection Society (APS) was an international human rights organisation, founded in 1837,[1] to ensure the health and well-being and the sovereign, legal and religious rights of the indigenous peoples while also promoting the civilization of the indigenous people[2] who were subjected under colonial powers.[3]Contents1 Foundation 2 Early strains 3 Activity from 1840 4 Publications 5 Merger 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksFoundation[edit] The foundation of the Society was prompted by a group centred on Thomas Hodgkin, with experience from around the world: Saxe Bannister (Australasia), Richard King (North America), John Philip (South Africa).[4] The founders were, on King's account, William Allen, Thomas Fowell Buxton, Henry Christy, Thomas Clarkson, Hodgkin, and Joseph Sturge.[5] Buxton, after the 1832 British abolition of the slave trade, had taken an interest in particular in the Cape Colony. The Quaker background and abolitionism were sig
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Antwerp
Antwerp
Antwerp
(/ˈæntwɜːrp/ ( listen), Dutch: Antwerpen [ˈɑntʋɛrpə(n)] ( listen), French: Anvers [ɑ̃vɛʁ(s)]) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504,[2] it is the most populous city proper in Belgium. Its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, coming in second behind Brussels.[3][4] Antwerp
Antwerp
is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea
North Sea
by the Westerschelde estuary
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Boma, Kongo Central
Boma is a port town on the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Kongo Central
Kongo Central
province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It had an estimated population of 162,521 in 2012.[2] Boma was the capital city of the Congo Free State
Congo Free State
and Belgian Congo (the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1 May 1886 to 1926, when the capital was moved to Léopoldville (since renamed Kinshasa). The port handles exports of tropical timber, bananas, cacao, and palm products.Contents1 History 2 Transport 3 People 4 Climate 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Boma was founded as a slaving station and entrepôt by merchants of several European countries in the 16th century.[3] Trade was chiefly in the hands of Dutch merchants, but British, French and Portuguese firms also had factories there
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Ivory
Ivory
Ivory
is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing. It consists mainly of dentine (inorganic formula Ca10(PO4)6(CO3)·H2O)), one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin
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George Washington Williams
George Washington Williams (October 16, 1849 – August 2, 1891) was an American Civil War soldier, Christian minister, politician, lawyer, journalist, and writer on African-American history. Shortly before his death he travelled to King Leopold II's Congo Free State. Shocked by what he saw, he wrote an open letter to Leopold in 1890 about the suffering of the region's inhabitants at the hands of Leopold's agents, which spurred the first public outcry against the regime running the Congo since such a regime had caused the loss of millions of lives.[1]Contents1 Life and work 2 Bibliography 3 Portrayal in popular culture 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife and work[edit] Williams was born in 1849 in Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania, to Thomas and Ellen Rouse Williams. The state had abolished slavery after the American Revolution. He was the oldest of four children; his brothers were John, Thomas and Harry Lawsom
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Joseph Retinger
Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. He was a founder of the European Movement that would lead to the establishment of the European Union[1] and was involved in founding the Bilderberg Group.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife[edit] Retinger was born in Kraków, Poland (then part of Austria-Hungary), the youngest of four children. His father, Józef Stanisław Retinger, was the personal legal counsel and adviser to Count Władysław Zamoyski. When Retinger's father died, Count Zamoyski took Józef into his household. Financed by Count Zamoyski, Retinger entered the Sorbonne in 1906, and two years later became the youngest person to earn a Ph.D. there at age twenty. He moved to England in 1911, where his closest friend was Polish writer Joseph Conrad
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Forced Labour
Unfree labour
Unfree labour
is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion,[1] or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families. Unfree labour
Unfree labour
includes all forms of slavery, and related institutions (e.g. debt slavery, serfdom, corvée and labour camps)
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John Holt (businessman)
John Holt (31 October 1841 – 22 June 1915) was an English merchant, who founded a shipping line operating between Liverpool and West Africa, and a number of businesses in Nigeria, which are now incorporated in John Holt plc. Holt was born in Garthorpe, Lincolnshire in 1841. In 1862, with £27 in his pocket, he sailed from Liverpool to take up an appointment as a shop assistant in a grocery store in Fernando Po (now Equatorial Guinea). Five years later, he bought out his employer, and he was joined by his brother Jonathan, and the two brothers expanded their business interests in West Africa, forming a partnership, John Holt and Company, in 1884, and a company, John Holt & Co
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British House Of Commons
The House of Commons
House of Commons
is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in Parliament assembled. Offices however extend to Portcullis House
Portcullis House
due to shortage of space. The Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past-the-post and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved. The House of Commons
House of Commons
of England
England
evolved in the 13th and 14th centuries
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