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Dzongkha Numerals Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, has two numeral systems, one vigesimal (base 20), and a modern decimal system. The vigesimal system remains in robust use. Ten is an auxiliary base: the teens are formed with ten and the numerals 1–9. Vigesimal[edit]1 ciː 11 cuci2 ˈɲiː 12 cuɲi3 sum 13 cusum4 ʑi 14 cuʑi5 ˈŋa 15 ceŋa6 ɖʱuː 16 cuɖu7 dyn 17 cupdỹ8 ɡeː 18 copɡe9 ɡuː 19 cyɡu10 cutʰãm* 20 kʰe ciː*When it appears on its own, 'ten' is usually said cutʰãm 'a full ten'. In combinations it is simply cu. Factors of 20 are formed from kʰe. Intermediate factors of ten are formed with pɟʱeda 'half to':30 kʰe pɟʱeda ˈɲiː (a half to two score)40 kʰe ˈɲiː (two score)50 kʰe pɟʱeda sum (a half to three score)100 kʰe ˈŋa (five score)200 kʰe cutʰãm (ten score)300 kʰe ceŋa (fifteen score)400 (20²) ɲiɕu is the next unit: ɲiɕu ciː 400, ɲiɕu ɲi 800, etc [...More...]  "Dzongkha Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Numeral System A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols "11" to be interpreted as the binary symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases. The number the numeral represents is called its value. Ideally, a numeral system will:Represent a useful set of numbers (e.g. all integers, or rational numbers) Give every number represented a unique representation (or at least a standard representation) Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers.For example, the usual decimal representation of whole numbers gives every nonzero whole number a unique representation as a finite sequence of digits, beginning with a nonzero digit [...More...]  "Numeral System" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Kaktovik Inupiaq Numerals Inuit, like other Eskimo languages (and Celtic and Mayan languages as well), uses a vigesimal counting system. Inuit counting has subbases at 5, 10, and 15. Arabic numerals, consisting of 10 distinct digits (09) are not adequate to represent a base20 system. Students from Kaktovik, Alaska, came up with the Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals,[1] which has since gained wide use among Alaskan Iñupiaq, and is slowly gaining ground in other countries where dialects of the Inuit language are spoken.[2] The numeral system has helped to revive counting in Inuit, which had been falling into disuse among Inuit speakers due to the prevalence of the base10 system in schools. The picture below shows the numerals 1–19 and then 0 [...More...]  "Kaktovik Inupiaq Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Greek Numerals Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greece, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals Roman numerals are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece Greece uses Arabic numerals.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Table 4 Higher numbers 5 Zero 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations' Linear A Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals, which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000.[1] Attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set [...More...]  "Greek Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Hebrew Numerals The system of Hebrew numerals Hebrew numerals is a quasidecimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The system was adapted from that of the Greek numerals Greek numerals in the late 2nd century BC. The current numeral system is also known as the Hebrew alphabetic numerals to contrast with earlier systems of writing numerals used in classical antiquity. These systems were inherited from usage in the Aramaic and Phoenician scripts, attested from c. 800 BC in the socalled Samaria ostraca Samaria ostraca and sometimes known as HebrewAramaic numerals, ultimately derived from the Egyptian Hieratic numerals. The Greek system was adopted in Hellenistic Judaism Hellenistic Judaism and had been in use in Greece since about the 5th century BC. [1] In this system, there is no notation for zero, and the numeric values for individual letters are added together [...More...]  "Hebrew Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Roman Numerals The numeric system represented by Roman numerals Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:[1]Symbol I V X L C D MValue 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire [...More...]  "Roman Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Aegean Numerals Aegean numbers was the numeral system used by the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations.[1] They are attested in Linear A Linear A and Linear B Linear B scripts. They may have survived in the CyproMinoan script, where a single sign with "100" value is attested so far on a large [...More...]  "Aegean Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Attic Numerals Attic numerals Attic numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2ndcentury manuscript by Herodian. They are also known as acrophonic numerals because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. See Greek numerals Greek numerals and acrophony.Decimal Symbol Greek numeral IPA1 Ι – –5 Π πέντε [pɛntɛ]10 Δ δέκα [deka]100 Η ἑκατόν [hɛkaton]1000 Χ χίλιοι / χιλιάς [kʰilioi / kʰilias]10000 Μ μύριον [myrion]The use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/ [...More...]  "Attic Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Babylonian Numerals Babylonian numerals Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedgetipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. The Babylonians, who were famous for their astronomical observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus), used a sexagesimal (base60) positional numeral system inherited from either the Sumerian or the Eblaite civilizations.[1] Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units).Contents1 Origin 2 [...More...]  "Babylonian Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Brahmi Numerals The Brahmi numerals Brahmi numerals are a numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). They are the direct graphic ancestors of the modern Indian and Hindu–Arabic numerals. However, they were conceptually distinct from these later systems, as they were not used as a positional system with a zero. Rather, there were separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.). There were also symbols for 100 and 1000 which were combined in ligatures with the units to signify 200, 300, 2000, 3000, etc. Origins[edit] The source of the first three numerals seems clear: they are collections of 1, 2, and 3 strokes, in Ashoka's era vertical I, II, III like Roman numerals, but soon becoming horizontal like the modern Chinese numerals. In the oldest inscriptions, 4 is a +, reminiscent of the X of neighboring Kharoṣṭhī, and perhaps a representation of 4 lines or 4 directions [...More...]  "Brahmi Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Chuvash Numerals Chuvash numerals Chuvash numerals is an ancient numeral system from the Old Turkic script the Chuvash people Chuvash people used. (Modern Chuvash use HinduArabic numerals.) Those numerals originate from finger numeration. They look like Roman numerals, but larger numerals stay at the right side. It was possible to carve those numerals on wood. In some cases numerals were preserved until the beginning of the 20th century.[1][2]Numeral Chuvash numeral1 I5 /10 X50 (upside down) 𐠂100 𐠀500 𐠁1000 ✳Examples[edit]HinduArabic Chuvash2 II4 IIII6 I/19 IIII/X32 IIXXX47 II/XXXXReferences[edit]^ сентября», Федотова Людмила Аркадьевна, Флегентова Апполинария Алексеевна, Издательский дом «Первое. "Интегрированный урок на тему "Чувашские числовые знаки" [...More...]  "Chuvash Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Egyptian Numerals The system of ancient Egyptian numerals Egyptian numerals was used in Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt from around 3000 BC[1] until the early first millennium AD. It was a system of numeration based on multiples of ten, often rounded off to the higher power, written in hieroglyphs [...More...]  "Egyptian Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Etruscan Numerals The Etruscan numerals Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals Roman numerals via the Old Italic script.Etruscan Arabic Symbol * Old Italicθu 1𐌠maχ 5𐌡śar 10𐌢muvalχ 50𐌣? 100 or C 𐌟There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number. Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tuscania Tuscania dice, there is agreement that zal, ci, huθ and śa are the numbers up to six (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on whether the numbers on opposite faces of Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays [...More...]  "Etruscan Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Kharosthi Numerals Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE Hieratic Hieratic 32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProtoSinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleoHebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE LibycoBerber LibycoBerber 3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semisyllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family Brahmic family (see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari Devanagari 13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c [...More...]  "Kharosthi Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Cyrillic Numerals Cyrillic numerals Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century [...More...]  "Cyrillic Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Maya Numerals The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization. It was a vigesimal (base20) positional numeral system. The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape, with the plastron uppermost), one (a dot) and five (a bar). For example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal bars; sometimes it is also written as three vertical dots to the left of two vertical bars. With these three symbols each of the twenty vigesimal digits could be written.400s20s1s33 429 5125Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty. The Mayan used powers of twenty, just as our HinduArabic numeral system uses powers of tens.[1] For example, thirtythree would be written as one dot, above three dots atop two bars. The first dot represents "one twenty" or "1×20", which is added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen. Therefore, (1×20) + 13 = 33 [...More...]  "Maya Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 