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Dutch-based Creole Languages
A DUTCH CREOLE is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language . Most Dutch-based creoles originated in Dutch colonies in the Americas and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, after the 17th century expansion of Dutch maritime power. Almost all of them are now extinct. LISTSome important Dutch creoles are the following: CREOLE LOCATION STATUS Berbice Guyana EXTINCT Skepi Guyana EXTINCT Negerhollands U.S
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Creole Language
A CREOLE LANGUAGE is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language , in the strict sense of the term, a mixed/hybrid language has derived from two or more languages, to such an extent that it is no longer closely related to the source languages. Creoles also differ from pidgins in that, while a pidgin has a highly simplified linguistic structure that develops as a means of establishing communication between two or more disparate language groups, a creole language is more complex, used for day-to-day purposes in a community, and acquired by children as a native language . Creole languages, therefore, have a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar . The precise number of creole languages is not known, particularly as many are poorly attested or documented, but the list of creole languages shows that creoles exist around the world
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Dutch Language
DUTCH (_ Nederlands_ (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten , which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany , and in Indonesia , while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States , Canada and Australia combined
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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities List * São Paulo * Lima * Mexico City * New York City * Bogotá * Rio de Janeiro * Santiago * Los Angeles * Caracas * Buenos Aires CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The AMERICAS (also collectively called AMERICA) encompass the totality of the continents of North and South America . Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World . Along with their associated islands , they cover 8% of Earth 's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera , a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast
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Southeast Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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Berbice Dutch Creole
2005 with the death of Bertha Bell LANGUAGE FAMILY Dutch Creole * BERBICE DUTCH CREOLE LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-3 brc GLOTTOLOG berb1259 THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .BERBICE DUTCH CREOLE is a now extinct Dutch-based creole language . It had a lexicon partly based on a dialect of the West African language of Ijaw
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Guyana
Coordinates : 5°00′N 58°45′W / 5°N 58.75°W / 5; -58.75 Co-operative Republic
Republic
of Guyana _ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "One People, One Nation, One Destiny" ANTHEM: Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains _ Capital and largest city Georgetown 6°46′N 58°10′W / 6.767°N 58.167°W / 6.767; -58.16
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Skepi Dutch Creole
SKEPI is an extinct Dutch-based creole language of Guyana
Guyana
, spoken in the region of Essequibo . It was not mutually intelligible with Berbice Creole Dutch , also spoken in Guyana. This language has been classified as extinct since 1998. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Sample texts * 2.1 Fragment from the 1780 letter by Van Vloten * 3 Notes * 4 References DESCRIPTIONBy the twentieth century, the existence of a Dutch creole language in the former Essequibo colony was largely forgotten about, and the language only gained the interest of linguists after the Guyanan linguist Ian E. Robertson, who had already brought Berbice Creole Dutch to the attention of the scientific community, also found people on the Essequibo River who remembered a Dutch creole language
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Negerhollands
NEGERHOLLANDS (English translation: Negro-Dutch) was a Dutch-based creole language that was once spoken in the Danish West Indies
Danish West Indies
, now known as the U.S. Virgin Islands . Dutch is its superstrate language with Danish , English , French , Spanish , and African elements incorporated. Notwithstanding its name, Negerhollands draws primarily from the Zeelandic
Zeelandic
rather than the Hollandic
Hollandic
dialect. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Text samples * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References HISTORY Negerhollands emerged around 1700 on the Virgin Islands Saint John , Saint Croix , and especially Saint Thomas , then Danish colonies
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U.S. Virgin Islands
The UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS (USVI; also called the AMERICAN VIRGIN ISLANDS), officially the VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, are a group of islands in the Caribbean that are an insular area of the United States . The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles . The U.S. Virgin Islands consist of the main islands of Saint Croix , Saint John , and Saint Thomas , and many other surrounding minor islands . The total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles (346.36 km2). The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of Saint Thomas. Previously the Danish West Indies of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway , they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916. They are classified by the U.N
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Petjo Language
PETJO, also known as PETJOH, PETJOK, PECOK, is a Dutch-based creole language that originated among the Indos , people of mixed Dutch and Indonesian ancestry in the former Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
. The language has influences from Dutch , Javanese and Betawi . Its speakers presently live mostly in Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The language is expected to become extinct by the end of the 21st century. CONTENTS * 1 The language * 2 References * 2.1 Bibliography * 2.2 Notes * 3 External links THE LANGUAGEAs opposed to a mere pidgin , Petjok is an actual language owned by a social category, "with standardized word order and grammatical markers in pidgin missing". Just as the Indo (Eurasian) community historically originated from relationships between European males and Indonesian females, its language reflects this same origin
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by
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Netherlands
The NETHERLANDS (/ˈnɛðərləndz/ (_ listen ); Dutch : Nederland_ (_ listen ); Frisian : Nederlân_), also known informally as HOLLAND, is a densely populated country in Western Europe , also incorporating three island territories in the Caribbean . It is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . The European portion of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom , and Germany. The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht . Amsterdam is the country\'s capital , while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government
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Javindo Language
JAVINDO, also known by the pejorative name KRONTJONG, was a Dutch-based creole language spoken on Java
Java
, Indonesia
Indonesia
. The name Javindo is a portmanteau of Java
Java
and Indo , the Dutch word for a person of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent. This contact language developed from communication between Javanese -speaking mothers and Dutch -speaking fathers in Indo families. Its main speakers were Indo-Eurasian people. Its grammar was based on Javanese while the vocabulary was based on Dutch. Dutch lexicon was pronounced in a Javanese manner. Even though most words are derived from the Dutch language
Dutch language
its grammar and sentence construction is mostly Javanese including elements such as: morphology; lack of verbs; no past tense; no finite verb . It should not be confused with Petjo , a different Dutch- and Malay-based creole also spoken by Indo-Eurasians
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