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Dutch Language
 Aruba  Belgium  Curaçao  Netherlands  Sint Maarten  Suriname Benelux European Union South American Union CaricomRegulated by Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)Language codesISO 639-1 nlISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T)ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/FlemishGlottolog mode1257[4]Linguasphere 52-ACB-aDutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans)Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western EuropeThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Second Language
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken by the community as a whole. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, one of them being English, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas. More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second-language acquisition (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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First Language
A first language, native language or mother/father tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth[1] or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language.[2] Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Southern Africa
Southern Africa
Africa
is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries. The term southern Africa
Africa
or Southern Africa, generally includes Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Daughter Language
In historical linguistics, a daughter language is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent
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