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Dumbarton Oaks Conference
The Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
Conference or, more formally, the Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization was an international conference at which the United Nations
United Nations
was formulated and negotiated among international leaders. The conference was held at Dumbarton Oaks, in Washington, D.C., from August 21, 1944, to October 7, 1944. Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
in Washington, D.C., was the location of the conference.Contents1 Overview 2 Setting 3 Goals and outcomes 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksOverview[edit] The Dumbarton Oaks
Dumbarton Oaks
Conference constituted the first important step taken to carry out paragraph 4 of the Moscow Declaration of 1943, which recognized the need for a postwar international organization to succeed the League of Nations
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Paris Peace Conference, 1919
The Paris
Paris
Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I
World War I
to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Involving diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities, the major or main decisions were the creation of the League of Nations, as well as the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; reparations imposed on Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect ethnic boundaries. The main result was the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
with Germany, which in section 231 laid the guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies"
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Mildred Barnes Bliss
Mildred Barnes Bliss
Mildred Barnes Bliss
(September 9, 1879 – January 17, 1969) was an American art collector, philanthropist, and one of the cofounders of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
in Washington, D.C. Bliss was born in New York City
New York City
on September 9, 1879, the daughter of U.S. Congressman Demas Barnes
Demas Barnes
(1827–1888), and Anna Dorinda Blaksley Barnes (1851–1935). She was the stepsister of Cora (Kora) Fanny Barnes (1858–1911). When Anna Barnes remarried in 1894, Mildred Barnes became the stepdaughter of William Henry Bliss (1844-1932) and the stepsister of Robert Woods Bliss
Robert Woods Bliss
(1875–1962)[1] and Annie Louise Bliss Warren (1878–1964)
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Universal Newsreel
Universal Newsreel
Newsreel
(sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel
Newsreel
or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios. A Universal publicity official, Sam B. Jacobson, was involved in originating and producing the newsreels.[1] Nearly all of them were filmed in black-and-white, and many were narrated by Ed Herlihy
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League Of Nations Mandate
A League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the International Court.[1] The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, entered into on 28 June 1919. With the dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
after World War II, it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
that the remaining Mandates should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, subject to future discussions and formal agreements
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United Nations Trust Territories
United Nations trust territories
United Nations trust territories
were the successors of the remaining League of Nations
League of Nations
mandates, and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. All of the trust territories were administered through the United Nations Trusteeship Council. The one territory not turned over was South-West Africa, which South Africa insisted remained under the League of Nations
League of Nations
Mandate. It eventually gained independence in 1990 as Namibia
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Charles E. Bohlen
Charles Eustis "Chip" Bohlen (August 30, 1904 – January 1, 1974) was a US diplomat from 1929 to 1969 and an expert on the Soviet Union. He served in Moscow
Moscow
before, during, and after World War II, succeeding George F. Kennan
George F. Kennan
as US Ambassador
US Ambassador
to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1953–1957). He then became ambassador to the Philippines
Philippines
(1957–1959) and to France
France
(1962–1968). He was an exemplar of the nonpartisan foreign policy advisers who came to be known colloquially as "The Wise Men."Contents1 Family 2 Diplomatic career 3 Death 4 Legacy 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksFamily[edit] Bohlen was born in Clayton, New York, on August 30, 1904, to Celestine Eustis Bohlen, the daughter of James B
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James Bryan Conant
James Bryant Conant
James Bryant Conant
(March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany. Conant obtained a PhD in Chemistry from Harvard in 1916. During World War I he served in the U.S. Army, working on the development of poison gases. He became an assistant professor of chemistry at Harvard in 1919, and the Sheldon Emery Professor of Organic Chemistry in 1929. He researched the physical structures of natural products, particularly chlorophyll, and he was one of the first to explore the sometimes complex relationship between chemical equilibrium and the reaction rate of chemical processes
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Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for clergyman John Harvard (its first benefactor), its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[8] Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[9] and the Harvard Corporation
Harvard Corporation
(formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College) is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[10][11] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, United States. .mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capacity and growth 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 Limitations 3.2 In legal evidence3.2.1 Civil litigation3.2.1.1 Netbula LLC v
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Robert Woods Bliss
The name Robert
Robert
is a Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic *χrōþi- "fame" and *berχta- "bright".[1] Compare Old Dutch Robrecht and Old High German
Old High German
Hrodebert (a compound of hruod "fame, glory" and berht "bright"). It is also in use as a surname.[2][3] After becoming widely used in Continental Europe it entered England
England
in its Old French
Old French
form Robert, where an Old English
Old English
cognate form (Hrēodbēorht, Hrodberht, Hrēodbēorð, Hrœdbœrð, Hrœdberð) had existed before the Norman Conquest. The feminine version is Roberta. The Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish form is Roberto. Similar to the name Richard, "Robert" is also a common name in many Germanic languages, including English, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and Icelandic
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E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl Of Halifax
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, TD, PC (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and Viscount Halifax
Viscount Halifax
from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s. He held several senior ministerial posts during this time, most notably those of Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India
from 1925 to 1931 and of Foreign Secretary between 1938 and 1940. He was one of the architects of the policy of appeasement of Hitler In 1936-38, working closely with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
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Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
(October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Tennessee. He is known as the longest-serving Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during most of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".[1] Born in Olympus, Tennessee, he pursued a legal career after graduating from the Cumberland School of Law. He won election to the Tennessee House of Representatives and served in Cuba
Cuba
during the Spanish–American War. He represented Tennessee
Tennessee
in the United States House of Representatives from 1907 to 1921 and from 1923 to 1931
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Wellington Koo
Vi Kyuin Wellington Koo
Wellington Koo
(Chinese: 顧維鈞; pinyin: Gù Wéijūn; Wade–Giles: Ku Wei-chün; 29 January 1888 – 14 November 1985) was a Chinese statesman of the Republic of China. He was one of China's representatives at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919; served as an Ambassador to France, Great Britain and the United States; was a participant in the founding of the League of Nations
League of Nations
and the United Nations; and sat as a judge on the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
in The Hague
The Hague
from 1957 to 1967
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