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Duchy Of Saxony
The Duchy of Saxony
Saxony
(Low German: Hartogdom Sassen, German: Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons
Saxons
in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
during the Saxon Wars
Saxon Wars
from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804
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Low German
Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk German: Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch Dutch: NederduitsNative to Northern Germany Western Germany Eastern Netherlands Southern DenmarkEthnicity Dutch, Frisians
Frisians
and Germans; Historically Saxons ( Germanic peoples
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Low German Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
(English: /ˈhæmbɜːrɡ/; German: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] ( listen); locally: [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç] ( listen)), Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg [ˈhambɔːç] ( listen), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Hamburg
(German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg),[5] is the second-largest city of Germany
Germany
as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region
Hamburg Metropolitan Region
which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than 5 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state
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Bremen (state)
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Bremen
(German: Freie Hansestadt Bremen, pronounced [ˈbʁeːmən]) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states. A more informal name, but used in some official contexts, is Land Bremen
Bremen
("State of Bremen"). The state consists of the city of Bremen
Bremen
as well as the small exclave of Bremerhaven
Bremerhaven
in Northern Germany, surrounded by the larger state of Lower Saxony.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Politics3.1 Political system 3.2 2003 state reelections 3.3 2007 state elections 3.4 Coat of arms4 Education 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] The state of Bremen
Bremen
consists of two separated enclaves
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Saale
The Saale
Saale
(German pronunciation: [ˈzaːlə]), also known as the Saxon Saale
Saale
(German: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale
Saale
(German: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany
Germany
and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. It is not to be confused with the smaller Franconian Saale, a right-bank tributary of the Main, or the Saale
Saale
in Lower Saxony, a tributary of the Leine.Contents1 Course 2 Geography 3 Tributaries 4 Etymology 5 See also 6 References 7 SourcesCourse[edit] Saale
Saale
in Bad KösenThe Saale
Saale
originates on the slope of the Großer Waldstein
Großer Waldstein
mountain near Zell in the Fichtelgebirge
Fichtelgebirge
in Upper Franconia
Upper Franconia
(Bavaria), at an elevation of 728 metres (2,388 ft)
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Elbe
The Elbe
Elbe
(/ˈɛlbə/; Czech:  Labe (help·info) [ˈlabɛ]; German: Elbe
Elbe
[ˈɛlbə]; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains
Krkonoše Mountains
of the northern Czech Republic
Czech Republic
before traversing much of Bohemia
Bohemia
(Czech Republic), then Germany
Germany
and flowing into the North Sea
North Sea
at Cuxhaven, 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Hamburg. Its total length is 1,094 kilometres (680 mi).[1] The Elbe's major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Saale, Havel, Mulde, Schwarze Elster, and Ohře.[1] The Elbe
Elbe
river basin, comprising the Elbe
Elbe
and its tributaries, has a catchment area of 148,268 square kilometres (57,247 sq mi), the fourth largest in Europe
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States Of Germany
Germany
Germany
is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (German: Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).[a] Since today's Germany
Germany
was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg
Hamburg
are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen
Bremen
and Bremerhaven
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Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(German: Sachsen-Anhalt, pronounced [ˌzaksn̩ ˈʔanhalt])[5] is a landlocked federal state of Germany
Germany
surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
and Thuringia. Its capital is Magdeburg
Magdeburg
and its largest city is Halle (Saale). Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres (7,894.9 sq mi)[6] and has a population of 2.23 million. It is the 8th largest state in Germany
Germany
by area and the 10th largest by population. The state of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
grew out of the former Prussian Province of Saxony
Saxony
and Free State of Anhalt
Free State of Anhalt
during Prussia's dissolution after World War II
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Golden Bull Of 1356
The Golden Bull
Golden Bull
of 1356 (German: Goldene Bulle, Latin: Bulla Aurea) was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Metz
Metz
(Diet of Metz
Metz
(1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire
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Henry The Lion
Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
(German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131[1] – 6 August 1195[1]) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180. He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I Barbarossa and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI. At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia
Westphalia
to Pomerania
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Treaty Of Verdun
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse, ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War.Contents1 Background 2 Provisions 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksBackground[edit] Following Charlemagne's death, Louis was made ruler of the Carolingian empire. During his reign, he divided the empire so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greater rule of their father. Lothair I
Lothair I
was given the title of emperor but because of several re-divisions by his father and the resulting revolts, he became much less powerful
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Saxon Wars
The Saxon Wars
Saxon Wars
were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne
Charlemagne
first entered Saxony
Saxony
with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. In all, eighteen battles were fought in what is now northwestern Germany. They resulted in the incorporation of Saxony into the Frankish realm and their forcible conversion from Germanic paganism to Catholicism.[1] Despite repeated setbacks, the Saxons
Saxons
resisted steadfastly, returning to raid Charlemagne's domains as soon as he turned his attention elsewhere
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Settlement Geography
Settlement geography is a branch of geography that investigates the earth's surface's part settled by humans. According to the United Nations' Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976), "human settlements means the totality of the human community – whether city, town or village – with all the social, material, organizational, spiritual and cultural elements that sustain it."Contents1 Classification 2 Actuality 3 Definitions 4 See also 5 ReferencesClassification[edit] Traditionally, it belongs to cultural geography and is divided into the geography of urban settlements (cities and towns) and rural settlements (e.g. villages and hamlets). Thereby, settlements are mostly seen as elements of the cultural landscape that developed over time. Apart from Australia, Europe and India, the term is actually rarely used in English-speaking geography. One of the last English books on settlement geography was published by Cambridge University Press in the 90s
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 6th century
6th century
to the 10th century
10th century
CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
of European history. The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
overlap with Late Antiquity. The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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