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Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
(Chinese: 段祺瑞; pinyin: Duàn Qíruì; Wade–Giles: Tuan Ch'i-jui; IPA: [tu̯àn t͡ɕʰíɻu̯èi̯]) (6 March 1865 – 2 November 1936) was a Chinese warlord and politician, a commander of the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
and the acting Chief Executive of the Republic of China (in Beijing) from 1924–26. He was also the Premier of the Republic of China
Republic of China
on four occasions between 1913 and 1918. He was arguably the most powerful man in China from 1916–20.Contents1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Politics3.1 State Premier 3.2 World War I 3.3 Anhui
Anhui
clique 3.4 Fall from power 3.5 Return as chief executive4 Personal life 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born in Hefei
Hefei
as Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
(Chinese: 段啟瑞), his courtesy name was Zhiquan (Chinese: 芝泉)
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Chinese Name
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing (姓, xìng), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming (名, míng), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic
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Weihai
Weihai
Weihai
(Chinese: 威海; pinyin: Wēihǎi), formerly called Weihaiwei ( Weihai
Weihai
Guard) (traditional Chinese: 威海衞; simplified Chinese: 威海卫; pinyin: Wēihǎiwèi), is a city in eastern Shandong province, China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport. Weihai
Weihai
borders Yantai
Yantai
to the west and the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
to the east. Weihai's population was 2,804,800 at the 2010 census. Amongst them, 591,982 live in the built up area ( Huancui district)
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Chinese Surname
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Courtesy Name
A courtesy name (Chinese: 字, zi), also known as a style name,[1] is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.[2] This practice is a tradition in East Asian cultures, including China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam.[3] Formerly in China, the zi would replace a male's given name when he turned twenty, as a symbol of adulthood and respect.[citation needed] It could be given either by the parents or by the first personal teacher on the first day of family school. Females might substitute their given name for a zi upon marriage
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Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901), GCVO, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili, Huguang and Liangguang. Although he was best known in the West for his generally pro-modern stance and importance as a negotiator, Li antagonised the British with his support of Russia as a foil against Japanese expansionism in Manchuria
Manchuria
and fell from favour with the Chinese after their defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War. His image in China remains controversial, with criticism on one hand for political and military mistakes and praise on the other for his success against the Taiping Rebellion, his diplomatic skills defending Chinese interests in the era of unequal treaties, and his role pioneering China's industrial and military modernisation
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Lüshun
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District; simplified Chinese: 旅顺口区; traditional Chinese: 旅順口區; pinyin: Lǚshùnkǒu Qū) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City (旅顺市; 旅順市; Lǚshùn Shì) or literally Lüshun Port (旅顺港; 旅順港; Lǚshùn gǎng), it was formerly known as both Port Arthur (亚瑟港; 亞瑟港; Yàsè Gǎng; Russian: Порт-Артур, translit. Port-Artur and Ryojun (Japanese: 旅順). The district's area is 512.15 square kilometres (197.74 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010[update] is 324,773.[2][3] Lüshunkou is located at the extreme southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. It has an excellent natural harbor, the possession and control of which became a casus belli of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05). Japanese and then Soviet administration continued until 1953
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Military Science
Military science
Military science
is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.[1] It is mainly focused on theory, method, and practice of producing military capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the strategic, political, economic, psychological, social, operational, technological, and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of military force; and to increase the likelihood and favorable outcomes of victory in peace or during a war. Military scientists include theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, applied scientists, designers, engineers, test technicians, and other military personnel. Military personnel obtain weapons, equipment, and training to achieve specific strategic goals
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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Boxer Rebellion
Legations: Claude Maxwell MacDonald Seymour Expedition: Sir Edward Seymour Gaselee Expedition: Alfred Gaselee Yevgeni Alekseyev Nikolai Linevich Fukushima Yasumasa Yamaguchi Motomi(ja:山口素臣) Adna Chaffee Emerson H
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Shandong
Shandong
Shandong
(Chinese: 山东; formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China
China
region. Shandong
Shandong
has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai
Mount Tai
is the most revered mountain of Taoism
Taoism
and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan
Jinan
were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China
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Wuchang Uprising
Decisive Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
victoryStart of the Xinhai RevolutionBelligerents Qing Empire TongmenghuiCommanders and leaders Yuan Shikai Various others Huang Xing Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) Li YuanhongStrength10,000 troops 2,000 troopsCasualties and losses~4,000 killed ~1,000 killedWuchang UprisingTraditional Chinese 武昌起義Hanyu Pinyin Wǔchāng QǐyìTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin Wǔchāng QǐyìYue: CantoneseJyutping mou5 coeng1 hei2 ji6The Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China. It was the first successful uprising led by elements of the New Army, influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui.[1] Following the uprising, several other uprisings quickly spread across southern China
China
as part of the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution
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Hankou
Coordinates: 30°34′52″N 114°16′21″E / 30.581179°N 114.272597°E / 30.581179; 114.272597Hankou 汉口市City of China1921–1949 →   →   →The map of Hankou
Hankou
(with the five foreign concessions), Hanyang, and Wuchang, as of 1915History •  Established 3 July 1921 •  Disestablished 16 May 1949Today part of Part of Wuhan
Wuhan
(Jiang'an, Jianghan, & Qiaokou) Hankou
Hankou
(Chinese: t 漢口, s 汉口, p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan
Wuhan
municipality, the capital of the Hubei
Hubei
province, China. It stands north of the Han and Yangtze
Yangtze
Rivers where the Han falls into the Yangtze
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Hanyang District
Hanyang District
Hanyang District
(simplified Chinese: 汉阳区; traditional Chinese: 漢陽區; pinyin: Hànyáng Qū) forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei
Hubei
province, People's Republic of China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River (right/southern bank) and the Yangtze River (left/northwestern bank), where the former drains into the latter. It is connected by bridges with its former sister cities, Hankou and Wuchang
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