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Dravidian Languages
The Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Bhutan,[2] and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Singapore. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam
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Vijayanagara Empire
The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire (also called Karnata,[2] and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
region in South India. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty.[3][4][5] The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic
Islamic
invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates
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Nayak Dynasty
Nayaka dynasties emerged after the downfall of Vijayanagara Empire. The Nayaks were originally military governors under the supervision of the Vijayanagara Empire. They were the most powerful clan. After the battle of Talikota, several of them declared independence. The Nayaka kingdoms included the following:Nayaks of Madurai Nayaks of Tanjore Nayaks of Gingee
Nayaks of Gingee
or Senji Nayaks, founded by Ramabhadra Nayak [1] Nayaks of Kalahasti Nayakas of Chitradurga Nayaks of Vellore, Channapatna and Rayadurga[2] Nayaks of Kandy Nayakas of KeladiReferences[edit]^ Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Penumbral visions: making polities in early modern South India, page 198. BS Baliga. Tamil Nadu district gazetteers, page 427. ^ Noboru Karashima (ed). Kingship in Indian history, Issue 2 of Japanese studies on South Asia. Page 192.This article about the culture of India is a stub
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Hoysala Dynasty
The Hoysala empire was a prominent Kannadiga empire that ruled most of the what is now Karnataka, India between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu. The Hoysala rulers were originally from Malenadu, an elevated region in the Western Ghats. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the Western Chalukya Empire
Western Chalukya Empire
and Kalachuris of Kalyani, they annexed areas of present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri
Kaveri
delta in present-day Tamil Nadu
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Kakatiya Dynasty
The Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal
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Pallava Dynasty
The Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.[2][3] Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I
Narasimhavarman I
(630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century
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Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga
Gulbarga
region in modern Karnataka
Karnataka
as its base
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Satavahana Dynasty
The Satavahanas (IAST: Sātavāhana), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region. Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule began in the first century BCE and lasted until the second century CE, although some assign the beginning of their rule to as early as the 3rd century BCE. The Satavahana
Satavahana
kingdom mainly comprised the present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra. At different times, their rule extended to parts of modern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka. The dynasty had different capital cities at different times, including Pratishthana
Pratishthana
(Paithan) and Amaravati (Dharanikota). The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty
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Pandyan Dynasty
The Pandyan dynasty
Pandyan dynasty
was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola
Chola
and the Chera.[3] The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam.[4] The Early Pandyans ruled parts of Southern India
Southern India
from at least 4th century BCE. Pandyan rule ended in the first half of the 16th century CE.[5] They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu
Pandya Nadu
from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Fish being their flag, Pandyas
Pandyas
were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. Pandyan was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire
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Chera Dynasty
Maritime contacts Sangam period Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad
Venad
- Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala Unification of KeralaOther topics Geography Economy Architecture Fortsv t ePart of a series onHistory of Tamil NaduMainTamiḻakam Chronology of Tamil history List of Tamil monarchsSangam periodSources Three Crowned Kings Education Legal syst
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Chola Dynasty
List of Chola
Chola
kings and emperorsEarly CholasEllalan Kulakkottan Ilamchetchenni Karikala Nedunkilli Nalankilli Killivalavan Kopperuncholan Kochchenganan PerunarkilliInterregnum (c. 200 – c. 848)Medieval CholasVijayalaya 848–891(?)Aditya I 891–907Parantaka I 907–950Gandaraditya 950–957Arinjaya 956–957Sundara (Parantaka II) 957–970Aditya II (co-regent)Uttama 970–985Rajaraja I 985–1014Rajendra I 1012–1044Rajadhiraja 1044–1054Rajendra II 1054–1063Virarajendra 1063–1070Athi
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Ancient History Of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
portalBibliography Glossary Timelinev t eThe Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
period was a period in the history of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
of the Anuradhapura Kingdom
Anuradhapura Kingdom
from 377 BC to 1017 AD. The period begins when Pandukabhaya, King of Upatissa Nuwara moved the administration to Anuradhapura, becoming the kingdom's first monarch
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History Of South India
The history of the southern part of India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. The period of known history of the region begins with the Iron age (1200 BCE to 24 BCE) period until the 14th century CE. Dynasties of Satavahana, Chola, Chera, Chalukya, Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Kakatiya and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. These Dynasties constantly fought amongst each other and against external forces when Muslim armies invaded south India. Vijayanagara empire rose in response to the Muslim intervention and covered the most of south India and acted as a bulwark against Mughal expansion into the south. When the European powers arrived during the 16th century CE, the southern kingdoms resisted the new threats, and many parts eventually succumbed to British occupation
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Maldivian Folklore
Maldivian mythology or Maldivian folklore is the body of myths, tales and anecdotes belonging to the oral tradition of Maldivians. Even though some of the Maldivian myths were already mentioned briefly by British commissioner in Ceylon HCP Bell towards the end of the 19th century,[1] their study and publication were carried out only quite recently by Spanish writer and artist Xavier Romero-Frias, at a time when that ancestral worldview was quickly disappearing.[2] The Maldives lie in the warm equatorial area of the Indian Ocean surrounded by very deep waters. This nation is made up exclusively of coral atolls
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Kumari Kandam
Kumari Kandam
Kumari Kandam
(Tamil: குமரிக்கண்டம்) refers to a mythical[1] lost continent with an ancient Tamil civilization, located south of present-day India, in the Indian Ocean. Alternative name and spellings include Kumarikkantam and Kumari Nadu. In the 19th century, a section of the European and American scholars speculated the existence of a submerged continent called Lemuria, to explain geological and other similarities between Africa, Australia, India and Madagascar. A section of Tamil revivalists adapted this theory, connecting it to the Pandyan legends of lands lost to the ocean, as described in ancient Tamil and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature. According to these writers, an ancient Tamil civilization existed on Lemuria, before it was lost to the sea in a catastrophe. In the 20th century, the Tamil writers started using the name "Kumari Kandam" to describe this submerged continent
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Dravida Kingdom
Dravida
Dravida
is mentioned as one of the kingdoms in the southern part of present-day mainland India during the time of the Mahabharata. Sometimes the name Dravida
Dravida
was used to denote all the southern kingdoms (like the Chera,
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