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Drainage Basin
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Maritimes
The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces (French: Provinces maritimes) or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (PEI). The Maritimes had a population of 1,813,606 in 2016.[3] The Maritimes, along with a fourth province – Canada's easternmost province, Newfoundland and Labrador – make up the region of Atlantic Canada. Located along the Atlantic coast, various aquatic sub-basins are located in the Maritimes, such as the Gulf of Maine and Gulf of St. Lawrence. The region is located northeast of New England, southeast of Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula, and southwest of the island of Newfoundland. The notion of a Maritime Union has been proposed at various times in Canada's history; the first discussions in 1864 at the Charlottetown Conference contributed to Canadian Confederation which instead formed the larger Dominion of Canada
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Hill
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit (e.g. Box Hill, Surrey).Contents1 Terminology 2 Historical significance 3 Military significance 4 Sports and games 5 Largest man-made 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTerminology[edit] Chocolate Hills
Chocolate Hills
of the PhilippinesHills in Tuscany, ItalyThe distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and largely subjective, but a hill is universally considered to be less tall and less steep than a mountain. In the United Kingdom, geographers historically regarded mountains as hills greater than 1,000 feet (304.8 meters) above sea level, which formed the basis of the plot of the 1995 film The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill
Hill
But Came Down a Mountain
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Mountain
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level
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Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
stretch more than 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges
Pacific Coast Ranges
and the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
and Sierra Nevada, which all lie further to the west. The Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
were initially formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began to slide underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America
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Relief Mapping (computer Graphics)
In computer graphics, relief mapping is a texture mapping technique used to render the surface details of three-dimensional objects accurately and efficiently.[1] It can produce accurate depictions of self-occlusion, self-shadowing, and parallax.[2] It is a form of short-distance raytrace done in a pixel shader.[citation needed] Relief mapping is highly comparable in both function and approach to another displacement texture mapping technique, Parallax occlusion mapping, considering that they both rely on raytraces, though the two are not to be confused with each other, as parallax occlusion mapping uses reverse heightmap tracing. See also[edit] Computer graphics
Computer graphics
portalShaded reliefReferences[edit]^ Policarpo, F., Oliveira, M. M., Comba, J. L. D. (2005). "'Real-time relief mapping on arbitrary polygonal surfaces'" (PDF)
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Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
(/ˌæpəˈlæʃɪn, -ˈleɪtʃɪn/ ( listen);[note 1] French: les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps
Alps
and the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
before experiencing natural erosion.[3][4] The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east-west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians
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Great Lakes
The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
(French: les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes[1] and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
through the Saint Lawrence River
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East Coast Of The United States
The East Coast
Coast
of the United States
United States
is the coastline along which the Eastern United States
Eastern United States
meets the North Atlantic Ocean. This area is also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast
Coast
and the Atlantic Seaboard
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Newfoundland And Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Labrador
(/ˈnjuːfən(d)lənd, -lænd, njuːˈfaʊndlənd ... ˈlæbrədɔːr/;[6] French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Montagnais: Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada
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Caribbean Sea
The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
(Spanish: Mar Caribe; French: Mer des Caraïbes; Dutch: Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico
Mexico
and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America. The entire area of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, and adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2 (1,063,000 sq mi).[1][2] The sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m (25,217 ft) below sea level
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Andes
The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz
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Western Europe
Western Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe
Europe
is commonly used, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses
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Central Europe
Central Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the central part of Europe. Central Europe
Europe
occupies continuous territories that are otherwise sometimes considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe.[3][4][5] The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social, and cultural identity.[6][7][8][9][10][9][11][12][13][14][15] Central Europe
Europe
is going through a "strategic awakening",[16] with initiatives such as the Central European Initiative
Central European Initiative
(CEI), Centrope, and the Visegrád
Visegrád
Four Group
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