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Doubt
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e DOUBT characterises a status in which the mind remains suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them. Doubt
Doubt
on an emotional level is indecision between belief and disbelief. Doubt
Doubt
involves uncertainty , distrust or lack of sureness of an alleged fact , an action, a motive, or a decision . Doubt questions a notion of a perceived "reality ", and may involve delaying or rejecting relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults or appropriateness. (Compare paradox )
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Adversarial Process
An ADVERSARIAL PROCESS is one that supports conflicting one-sided positions held by individuals, groups or entire societies, as inputs into the conflict resolution situation, typically with rewards for prevailing in the outcome. Often in the form of the process assumes a game-like appearance. CONTENTS * 1 Adversarial politics * 2 Adversarial legal process * 3 Other examples * 4 Alternative systems * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References ADVERSARIAL POLITICSThe use of a voting system to choose candidates to hold political and military power is often necessarily adversarial. This process requires each candidate to convince voters that they are more trustworthy in the expected future circumstances, than their opponent
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Personal Life
PERSONAL LIFE is the course of an individual 's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity . In ancient past, most people's time was limited by the need to meet necessities such as food and shelter and there was not much leisure time . People identified with their social role in their community, and engaged in jobs based on necessity rather than personal choice. Privacy
Privacy
in such communities was rare. The modern conception of personal life is an offshoot of modern Western society. A modern person tends to distinguish one's work from one's personal life. It is a person's choices and preferences outside of work that define personal life, including one's choice of hobbies, cultural interests, manner of dress, and so on. In particular, what activities one engages in during leisure-time defines a person's personal life
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Age Of Enlightenment
The ENLIGHTENMENT (also known as the AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT or the AGE OF REASON; in French : le Siècle des Lumières, lit. 'the Century of Lights'; and in German : Aufklärung, 'Enlightenment') was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like liberty , progress , tolerance , fraternity , constitutional government , and separation of church and state . In France, the central doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church

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Tradition
A TRADITION is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers\' wigs or military officers' spurs ), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
tradere literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed
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Authority
The word AUTHORITY (derived from the Latin
Latin
word auctoritas ) can be used to mean the right to exercise power given by the State (in the form of government, judges, police officers, etc.), or by academic knowledge of an area (someone that can be an authority on a subject). When the word authority is used in the name of an organization, this name usually refers to the governing body upon which such authority is vested; for example, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority
Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority
or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
. It is also the right to do something
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Law
LAW is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior . Law
Law
as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, and equality amongst themselves. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes , by the executive through decrees and regulations , or established by judges through precedent , normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts , including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution , written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics , economics , history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people
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Ethics
ETHICS or MORAL PHILOSOPHY is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct . The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos ), meaning 'habit , custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics , each concerned with values . As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions "What is the best way for people to live?" and "What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?" In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil , right and wrong , virtue and vice , justice and crime . As a field of intellectual enquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology , descriptive ethics , and value theory
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Reason
REASON is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic , establishing and verifying facts , and changing or justifying practices, institutions , and beliefs based on new or existing information . It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy , science , language , mathematics , and art and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human nature . Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality . REASONING is associated with thinking , cognition , and intellect . Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning , inductive reasoning , abductive reasoning ; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning
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Procrastination
PROCRASTINATION (from latin's "procrastinare", that translates in to : the prefix pro-, 'forward', and suffix -crastinus, 'till next day' from cras, 'tomorrow') is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the "last minute" before a deadline . Procrastination can take hold on any aspect of life—putting off cleaning the stove, repairing a leaky roof, seeing a doctor or dentist, submitting a job report or academic assignment or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Procrastination can lead to feelings of: guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt
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Rigour
RIGOUR ( British English
British English
) or RIGOR ( American English
American English
; see spelling differences ) describes a condition of stiffness or strictness. Rigour frequently refers to a process of adhering absolutely to certain constraints, or the practice of maintaining strict consistency with certain predefined parameters. These constraints may be environmentally imposed, such as "the rigours of famine"; logically imposed, such as mathematical proofs which must maintain consistent answers; or socially imposed, such as the process of defining ethics and law
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: Politika, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries
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Psychoanalytic Theory
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis , a clinical method for treating psychopathology . First laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work. Psychoanalytic theory came to full prominence in the last third of the twentieth century as part of the flow of critical discourse regarding psychological treatments after the 1960s, long after Freud's death in 1939, and its validity is now widely disputed or rejected. Freud had ceased his analysis of the brain and his physiological studies and shifted his focus to the study of the mind and the related psychological attributes making up the mind, and on treatment using free association and the phenomena of transference . His study emphasized the recognition of childhood events that could influence the mental functioning of adults
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Phobia
A PHOBIA is a type of anxiety disorder , defined by a persistent fear of an object or situation. The phobia typically results in a rapid onset of fear and is present for more than six months. The affected person will go to great lengths to avoid the situation or object, typically to a degree greater than the actual danger posed. If the feared object or situation cannot be avoided, the affected person will have significant distress . With blood or injury phobia, fainting may occur. Agoraphobia is often associated with panic attacks . Usually a person has phobias to a number of objects or situations. Phobias can be divided into specific phobias , social phobia , and agoraphobia . Types of specific phobias include to certain animals, natural environment situations, blood or injury, and specific situations. The most common are fear of spiders , fear of snakes , and fear of heights
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Mind
The MIND is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness , perception , thinking , judgement , and memory . It is usually defined as the faculty of an entity's thoughts and consciousness . It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy , religion , psychology , and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what is its distinguishing properties. One open question regarding the nature of the mind is the mind–body problem , which investigates the relation of the mind to the physical brain and nervous system. Pre-scientific viewpoints included dualism and idealism , which considered the mind somehow non-physical. Modern views center around physicalism and functionalism , which hold that the mind is roughly identical with the brain or reducible to physical phenomena such as neuronal activity
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Socratic Method
THE SOCRATIC METHOD, also known as MAIEUTICS, METHOD OF ELENCHUS, ELENCTIC METHOD, or SOCRATIC DEBATE, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions. It is a dialectical method, often involving a discussion in which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the defender's point. This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates
Socrates
and is introduced by him in Plato