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Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(/ˈduːmzdeɪ/ or US: /ˈdoʊmzdeɪ/;[1][2] Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states:[3]Then, at the midwinter [1085], was the king in Gloucester
Gloucester
with his council ... . After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men
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County Palatine Of Durham
The County Palatine
County Palatine
of Durham was an area in the North of England that was controlled by the Bishop of Durham.Contents1 Liberty of Durham 2 Norman reorganisation 3 St Cuthbert
St Cuthbert
and the haliwerfolc 4 Sadberge 5 Early administration 6 Local courts of special jurisdiction 7 The Durham County Palatine
County Palatine
Acts 1836 to 1889 8 ReferencesLiberty of Durham[edit] Main article: Liberty of Durham The territory was originally the Liberty of Durham under the control of the Bishop of Durham. The liberty was also known variously as the "Liberty of St Cuthbert's Land", "The lands of St
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Overlord
An overlord in the English feudal system was a lord of a manor who had subinfeudated a particular manor, estate or fee, to a tenant. The tenant thenceforth owed to the overlord one of a variety of services, usually military service or serjeanty, depending on which form of tenure (i.e. feudal tenancy contract) the estate was held under. The highest overlord of all, or paramount lord, was the monarch, who due to his ancestor William the Conqueror's personal conquest of the Kingdom of England, owned[1] by inheritance from him all the land in England under allodial title and had no superior overlord, "holding from God and his sword",[2] although certain monarchs, notably King John (1199-1216) purported to grant the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
to the Pope, who would thus have become overlord to English monarchs
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Fiefdom
A fief (/fiːf/; Latin: feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms
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Bishop Of Durham
The Bishop
Bishop
of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham
Diocese of Durham
in the Province of York. The diocese is one of the oldest in England and its bishop is a member of the House of Lords. Paul Butler has been the Bishop
Bishop
of Durham since his election was confirmed at York Minster
York Minster
on 20 January 2014.[1] The previous bishop was Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury. The bishop is one of two (the other is the Bishop
Bishop
of Bath and Wells) who escort the sovereign at the coronation. He is officially styled The Right Reverend Father in God, (Christian Name), by Divine Providence Lord Bishop
Bishop
of Durham, but this full title is rarely used. In signatures, the bishop's family name is replaced by Dunelm, from the Latin name for Durham (the Latinised form of Old English Dunholm)
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County Durham
County Durham (/ˈdʌrəm/, locally /ˈdɜːrəm/) is a county[N 1] in North East England.[2] The county town is Durham, a cathedral city. The largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south.[3] The county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, and so includes places such as Gateshead, Jarrow, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages the county was an ecclesiastical centre; this was mainly due to the shrine of St Cuthbert being in Durham Cathedral, and the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a heavy railway industry, particularly in the southeast of the county in Darlington, Shildon and Stockton
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Winchester
Winchester
Winchester
is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, and is located at the western end of the South Downs National Park, along the course of the River Itchen.[2] It is situated 61 miles (98 km) south-west of London
London
and 13.6 miles (21.9 km) from Southampton, its closest city. At the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester
Winchester
had a population of 45,184. The wider City of Winchester
Winchester
district which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham
Bishop's Waltham
has a population of 116,800. [3] Winchester
Winchester
developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age
Iron Age
oppidum
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Devon
Devon
Devon
(/ˈdɛvən/), also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
in the north to the English Channel
English Channel
in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall
Cornwall
to the west, Somerset
Somerset
to the northeast, and Dorset
Dorset
to the east
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Essex
Essex
Essex
/ˈɛsɪks/ is a county in the East of England. Immediately north east of London, it is one of the home counties. It borders the counties of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
to the north, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
to the west, Kent
Kent
across the estuary of the River Thames
River Thames
to the south and London
London
to the south-west. The county town is Chelmsford, which is the only city in the county. Essex
Essex
occupies the eastern part of the former Kingdom of Essex, which subsequently united with the other Anglian and Saxon
Saxon
kingdoms to make England
England
a single nation state
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Warwickshire
Warwickshire
Warwickshire
(/ˈwɒrɪkʃər, -ʃɪər/ ( listen); abbreviated Warks) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. The county town is Warwick, although the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare.[2] The county is divided into five districts of North Warwickshire, Nuneaton
Nuneaton
and Bedworth, Rugby, Warwick
Warwick
and Stratford-on-Avon. The current county boundaries were set in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972
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Subinfeudation
In English law, subinfeudation is the practice by which tenants, holding land under the king or other superior lord, carved out new and distinct tenures in their turn by sub-letting or alienating a part of their lands.[1] The tenants were termed mesne lords, with regard to those holding from them, the immediate tenant being tenant in capite. The lowest tenant of all was the freeholder, or, as he was sometimes termed tenant paravail. The Crown, who in theory owned all lands, was lord paramount. The great lords looked with dissatisfaction on the increase of such subtenures
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Last Judgement
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord
Day of the Lord
(Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism. Some Christian denominations consider the Second Coming of Christ
Second Coming of Christ
to be the final and eternal judgment by God
God
of the people in every nation[1] resulting in the glorification of some and the punishment of others. The concept is found in all the Canonical gospels, particularly the Gospel of Matthew. Christian Futurists believe it will take place after the Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead
and the Second Coming of Christ while Full Preterists believe it has already occurred
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Dialogus De Scaccario
The Dialogus de Scaccario, or Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, is a mediaeval treatise on the practice of the English Exchequer written in the late 12th century by Richard FitzNeal. The treatise, written in Latin,[1] and known from four manuscripts from the 13th century[2] is set up as a series of questions and answers, covering the jurisdiction, constitution and practice of the Exchequer. One academic said that "The value of this essay for early English history cannot be over-estimated; in every direction it throws light upon the existing state of affairs."[3] It has been repeatedly republished and translated, most recently in 2007.Contents1 Origin 2 Versions and translations 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksOrigin[edit] The treatise was most likely written by Richard FitzNeal, Lord High Treasurer of the Exchequer under Henry II
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Custumal
A custumal is a medieval English document, usually edited and composed over time, that stipulates the economic, political, and social customs of a manor or town.[1]Contents1 Manorial Custumals 2 Borough Custumals 3 Notes 4 ReferencesManorial Custumals[edit] The National Archives define custumal as "an early type of survey which consists of a list of the manor's tenants with the customs under which each held his house and lands."[1] Custumals were compiled in Latin, Anglo-French or Law French and sometimes mixed fragments in different languages.[2][3] They were commonly preceded with a standard formula in French: Ces sount les usages, et les custumes le ques ... (There are the usages and customs of ...).[4] Custumals existed in two distinct forms:[5]A survey, or an inventory of rents and services ("customs") owed by each tenant of the manor; this form was relatively uncommon.[5] An inventory of the customs of the manor itself which summarized its regular agri
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Winchester, Hampshire
Winchester
Winchester
is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, and is located at the western end of the South Downs National Park, along the course of the River Itchen.[2] It is situated 61 miles (98 km) south-west of London
London
and 13.6 miles (21.9 km) from Southampton, its closest city. At the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester
Winchester
had a population of 45,184. The wider City of Winchester
Winchester
district which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham
Bishop's Waltham
has a population of 116,800. [3] Winchester
Winchester
developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age
Iron Age
oppidum
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